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Arts and Humanities
AP Psychology: Prologue Vocabulary
2012-2013 Vocabulary and Psychologists Definitions derived from Psychology: Ninth Edition by David G. Myers
Terms in this set (39)
Naturalist and philosopher; theorized about learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality. Believed in monism: the mind and body are one, inseparable. Knowledge is innate.
Experimental psychologist in the late 1870s. Studied conscious awareness of perception. Think about experiment: once you hear a tone press the button--once you perceive the tone press the button.
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind. Introspection: self reflection.
Edward Bradford Titchener
Introduced structuralism. Discovered structural elements of mind by engaging people in introspection.
Functionalist who supported Charles Darwin. Believed consciousness serves a function. It enables us to consider our past, adjust to our present circumstances, and plan out future. James encouraged explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, etc.
A school of psychology that focused on our mental and behavioral function--how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
"Principles of Psychology"
An "introduction of psychology" textbook written by William James. Introduced to the public in 1890.
Taught by William James, Calkins was almost the first female psychologist to earn a Ph.D. in psychology. Scoring higher than all of her male counterparts, she was still denied her Ph.D. in 1987. First APA president.
First female psychology Ph.D. Wrote Animal Minds. Second APA president.
Developed an influential theory of personality. Emphasized the ways emotional responses to childhood experiences and our unconscious thought processes affect our behavior.
The last century's most influential observer of children.
John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner
Defined psychology as "the scientific study of observable behavior." Believed science was rooted in observation. You cannot observe a sensation, a feeling, or a thought, but you can observe and record people's behavior as they respond to different situations.
Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth. Basically, this emphasized importance of current environmental influences on growth potential and the importance of having needs of love satisfied.
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1), but not (2).
Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow
Emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied.
The study of brain activity linked with mental activity. The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language). Interdisciplinary: of or relating to more than one branch of knowledge.
Science of behavior and mental processes.
Anything organisms do, any action: yelling, smiling, blinking, sweating, and talking
The internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior: sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings.
Contemporary Psychology: APA
The growth and globalization of psychology. International discussions and debates enduring issues, viewing behavior from different perspectives offered by the subfields in which they teach, work, and do research.
Nature v. Nurture
The controversy over the relative contributions that biology (genes) and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Traits and behaviors arise from the interaction between nature and nurture.
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Rejected the notion of inborn ideas, suggesting that the mind is a blank sheet on which experience writes.
Believed that some ideas were innate--in regards to John Locke's notion.
Established the theory of evolution, natural selection, and the evolutionary perspective.
Considers the influences of biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors. An integrated viewpoint that incorporates various levels of analysis and offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process.
How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences.
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
Basic research, applied research, counseling psychology, clinical psychology, and psychiatry.
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
The mind and body are separate. The mind continues to live after death.
The mind and body are inseparable. Knowledge is innate.
Knowledge and intellect are acquired through experience.
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