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Ms. Ong DNA Structure and Replication Quiz
Terms in this set (65)
What does DNA do?
Stores Genetic Info/Material
How many chromosomes does each of you body cells have?
What kind of biological molecule are DNA and RNA?
What is the main support of DNA?
What are the Base Pairs?
A, C, G, T
What allows your DNA to create you?
The base sequence
How many base pairs are in every cell?
Roughly 6 billion
What is the complimentary strand to the base sequence AGGTCCG?
How is DNA similar to RNA?
They bothe have a sugar phosphate backbone with nucleotide bases attached
What are 3 differences between RNA and DNA?
1.) RNA is a single strand of molecules
2.) Sugar in RNA is ribose
3.) RNA doesn't contain thymine
Who discovered DNA? How did he find it?
Friedrich Miescher. He was studying white blood cells
What are the two reasons why Rosalind Franklin is not a household name?
Her work was stolen, and she died before she could be given a Nobel Prize
How is a teenage boy like the enzyme DNA helicase?
They both want to "unzip your jeans/genes"
What is the function of DNA Helicase?
Breaks loose hydrogen bonds between nucleotides
What does DNA Polymerase do?
Adds matching nucleotides onto the main stem all the way down the molecule
What are the steps of DNA replication?
1.) The two bases forming each rung of the "ladder" snap apart. Caused by DNA Helicase passing along the strand 2.) Spare nucleotides attach themselves to the "broken rungs" to repair the break. Each repairing nucleotide s identical to the one broken 3.) As Each "broken rung" is repaired, two "ladders" form, that is two identical strands of DNA. The "repairing" is really the process of replication.xxxxs
Why was Ruffin arrested in 1981?
He was falsely accused of rape
What happened in 2003 that resulted in Ruffin being released from prison?
DNA analysis revealed that he wasn't the rapist
What is the DNA 200?
Group of 200 people that were freed from prison due to DNA analysis
How is DNA like a social security number? What is the one exception?
Everyone's is unique, the one exception is Identical twins
What are the individual units that DNA is arranged into?
What is the function of the sugar-phosphate backbone in DNA?
Holds the bases in sequence
What is the function of the bases (ATCG) in DNA?
They convey genetic info
What is a genome?
An organism's complete set of DNA
How is the genome of prokaryotes different than the genome of Eukaryotes?
In Eukaryotes, its found in the nucleus of almost every cell
What are chromosomes?
Unique pieces of DNA that make up an organism's genome
How many chromosomes do humans have?
Is there a relationship between number of chromosomes and how complex an organism is?
Why is the number of chromosomes doubled in each cell?
Because of the TWO parents
What is a gene? What is the functional product of a gene?
A specific sequence of DNA, it transfers DNA from parents to their offspring
What are alleles?
Alternating versions of a gene that code for the same features
How are alleles related to traits?
Your alleles determine what traits you have
What is "Junk DNA"? How much of a human's genome is "Junk DNA"?
Non-coding DNA, 90%
How does the percent of non-coding DNA in a prokaryotic genome compare to the percent of non-coding DNA in a Eukaryote?
It's much higher in Eukaryotes
What are introns?
Non-Coding regions that occur within genes
What is the process of DNA replication that produces an identical copy of the original DNA strand?
What type of bond holds the nitrogen bases to one another across the middle of the helix?
What type of bond connects one nucleotide to the next nucleotide?
In what part of the cell does replication occur?
During replication, the two nucleotide chains ______ and each chain will serve as a ______ for the production of a new DNA chain. The sites where new nucleotides are added are called ______.
Separate, template, replication forks
When replication occurs, it takes place at multiple sites along the molecule called ______.
The first step in replication is to break the ______ bonds between the ______. This is accomplished by the enzyme ______.
Origins of replication, hydrogen, nitrogen bases, helicase,
The copying of the DNA molecule is a fairly reliable process. As new nucleotides are added, there is an error rate of about 1 in ______ base pairs. The enzyme, ______ proofreads the new strand and looks for errors. If a mistake is found, this same enzyme removes the erroneous ______ and replaces it with another. After the proofreading, there is a final error rate of only 1 in ______ base pairs.
100,000, DNA Polymerase, Nucleotide, 10 Billion
A change in the base sequence of DNA is called a ______.
Several enzymes are involved in repairing damaged DNA. Enzymes called ______ cut out damaged sections of DNA. The enzyme ______ fills the resulting gaps with new nucleotides. ______ then seal the free ends, making the strand complete.
Nucleases, DNA Polymerase, Ligases
What is the primary function of DNA?
The DNA is the storage area for the protein building instructions of the cell.
Why is it so important that the DNA molecule be able to make copies of itself?
Whenever cells are preparing for mitosis or meiosis, The DNA must be copied exactly so that each
new cell will receive an identical copy of the complete genome.
What are two functions of DNA polymerase during replication?
DNA polymerase is the principle enzyme involved in DNA replication. These enzymes add the new
nucleotides to the newly forming strands of DNA. DNA polymerases also proofread the new strands
as they are being made and will correct any errors that are found.
When a DNA molecule is replicated, what is the relationship between the original strand and the newly formed strands of DNA?
The newly formed strands are identical to the original, parental strands.
What is meant by the "base-pairing" rules?
Adenine always pairs with thymine. Cytosine always pairs with guanine. These are referred to as
the base pairing rules.
What is the advantage to the multiple sites of replication along the DNA molecule?
The replication of DNA begins at many origins of replication along the DNA molecule. This speeds up
the process of replication. If replication started at one end and proceeded until it reached the other end, the process would be much slower
(T/F) The process of DNA replication produces an identical copy of the original DNA strand
(T/F) Replication results in two copies of the DNA molecule
(T/F)The replication of DNA begins at one end of the molecule and proceeds to the other end.
(T/F) DNA replication occurs simultaneously at many sites along the molecule, speeding up the process of replication.
(T/F) At the end of replication, each DNA molecule has one original strand and one new strand
(T/F) The primary purpose of replication is to produce new DNA strands that are very different from the old strands.
(T/F) Mutations always cause serious and harmful effects in the organisms in which they occur.
(T/F) Mutations can sometimes be an advantage by making the organism slightly better suited for its environment.
(T/F) Damage to DNA can never be repaired.
The main enzyme of replication whose function is to link together individual nucleotides along a template strand is called:
When replication is complete, two _____ copies of the DNA molecule have been produced and the cell is ready to begin _____.
Identical, cell division
Each strand of the DNA molecule can be used to make another strand during replication. This is because the two sides are ______ to each other.
What might cause accidental damage or changes in existing DNA?
Exposure to chemicals, radioactivity, x-rays, excessive exposure to ultraviolet light
What is a restriction enzyme?
An enzyme that has the property of cleaving DNA molecules at or near a specific sequence of bases.
What is gel electrophoresis?
Separates mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size. Molecules are separated and pushed by an electrical field through a gel due to DNA's slightly negative charge
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