Body Structures and Body Levers and Organ Systems

the maintenance of stable internal conditions
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
**The skin and its appendages, including the hair and nails; also referred to as the largest organ of the body. (protection, temp regulation, eliminate waste, reception of stimuli, vitamin d manufacture)
skeletal system
**The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
muscular system
**The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body, maintenance of posture, and heat production.
circulatory system
**Used to transport materials throughtout the body. Provides oxygen to blood and removes CO2 from blood. Provides nutrients to body tissues and remove wastes from body tissues.
respiratory system
a collection of organs whose primary function is to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide
digestive system
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
excretory system
the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance
immune system
a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
reproduction system
chemicals that regulate physical development of maturing bodies-makes sex cells
nervous system
the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
endocrine system
a chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the bloodstream
organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
a group of similar cells that perform a common function
basic types of tissue
**muscle, nervous, connective, epthelial
tissue covers internal and external surfaces of body
connective tissue
a body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts
main organ systems
**integumentry, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, immune, reproductive, nervous, endocrine
body's reaction to event which can disrupt homeostasis`
places where bones connect: hinge, pivot, gliding, ball and socket
**one of a million tiny filtered structures found in the kidneys that removes wastes from blood and produces urine.
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
third class lever
The fulcrum is at one end of the bar and the effort is between the fulcrum and the resistance
second class lever
The fulcrum is positioned at one end of the bar and the resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort
first class lever
The fulcrum is positioned between the effort and resistance
mechanical advantage (MA)
**the ratio of the force exerted by a machine to the force applied to it
resistance force(R)
force lever puts on object
effort force(E)
force exerted on lever
lever makes work easier
**changes the amount, distance, direction of force needed
a rigid object that turns around a fixed point called a fulcrum
when you an exert a force on an object that causes the object to move some distance in the same direction as the force (work=force x distance)
Microbes that cause disease
proteins in body that destroy pathogens
kinds of marrow
red marrow: makes blood cells
yellow marrow: stores fat
parts of bone
compact bone, outer membrane, marrow, spongy bone
connective tissue that is more flexible than bone- cushions bone joints
connective tissue that holds movable joints together
pivot joint
lets one bone pivot around another
sliding joint
lets one joint slide around another
ball and socket joint
gives best range of motion
2 types of joints
movable & immovable
functions of skeletal system
1. provides shape and support
2. enables you to move
3.protect organs
4. produces blood cells
5. stores mineral and other material until body needs them
strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
types of muscle
voluntary & involuntary
push or pull on an object- measures in newtons(N)