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Anthropology 101 Final
Terms in this set (116)
Related to marriage (as opposed to biology)
An eating disorder characterized by extreme dieting and feeling of being fat even though one is underweight
Science of the measurement of the human body, including measurements of bones, muscle, fat, and other body systems
Land suitable for cultivation
Without sexual desire, or in terms of sexual identity, someone with no apparent sexual desire
An anthropological term which refers to "two spirit" Native Americans (Native Americans who fulfill mixed gender roles)
A non-traditional family that may include step children, adopted children, foster children, step parents, step grandparents, and fictive kin
A head-to-toe veil common in Afghanistan, often made of cotton and covering most of the body, including the face
A ranked group, sometimes linked to a particular occupation, with membership determined at birth and with marriage restricted to others within the group
The establishment of government of sovereign rule in a territory through political, social, economic, and cultural domination by a foreign power
Constructions of Femininity
The warp in which a given culture defines appropriate ways of thinking and acting for women (see gender roles)
A system of required labor; characteristic of ancient societies
The idea, often associated with Marvin Harris, that cultural behaviors are best explained in relation to material constraints (including food-producing technology) to which humans are subjected
The principe that all cultural systems are inherently equal in value and, therefore, that each cultural item must be understood on its own terms
Defense of Marriage Act
A federal U.S. law that states that: (a) the federal government may not recognize same-sex or polygamous marriages for any purpose, and (b) no state is obliged to recognize a same-sex marriage conducted or recognized in another state. This law was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton on 21 September 1996
The statistical study of human populations, including, size, growth, migration, density, distribution, and vital statistics
The resultant phenomenon that is explained by its relationship with an independent variable
Presentation of goods or money by the bride's family to the bride, the groom, or the groom's family
The assumption that one's own group's lifestyle, values, and patterns of adaptation are superior to all others
The study and explanation of cultural similarities and differences
An uncommon form of plural marriage in which a woman is married to two or more brothers at one time
A tentative assumption or proposition about the the relationship(s) between specific events or phenomena, tentatively set forth as a "target" to be tested
The religious faith of Muslims who profess belief in Allah as the sole deity and Mohammad as the prophet of Allah
A network of culturally recognized relationships among individuals either through affinial or consanguineal ties
A form of capitalism emerging in the second half of the twentieth century, characterized by finance capital, globalization, and technological innovation
A culturally constructed institution through which interpersonal and usually intimate relationships are sanctioned and recognized by social, religious, and/or government authority
Marriage between one man and one woman at a given time
The concept, occurring in several South American cultures, that every man who has intercourse with a woman during her pregnancy contributes to the formation of the child; therefore, a child may have multiple fathers
An adherent or believer in Islam
A basic social grouping consisting of a husband and wife and their children, typical of societies with monogamous marriage with the family living at a distance from the parents of the husband and wife
The study of human fossil remains
Rural, agricultural populations of state-level societies who maintain parts of their traditional culture while they are tied into the wider economic system of the whole society through economic links of rent, taxes, and markets
The situation of population growth in a limited geographical area causing a decline in food production and resources and sometimes triggering technological change
A rule of inheritance in which the homestead is passed down to the firstborn (male) child
The Hindu or Muslim system of se segregation, which is practiced by keeping women in seclusion
Research strategies that emphasize description, in-depth interviewing, and participant observation
A data sample selected by a method in which all individuals in a population have equal chance of being selected
Learned social activities and expectations made on the basis of gender
Third gender typically refers to male ad sometimes female berdaches, while fourth gender only refers to female berdaches.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
Archaeology and Biological Anthropology
A brick made of earth and straw and dried by the sun.
The alternative form of a gene or DNA sequence that occurs at a given locus. Some loci have only one allele, some have two, and some have many alternative forms. Alleles occur in pairs, one on each chromosome.
A process of repeated heating and cooling to make metal tougher and less brittle.
Archaeological investigations that seek to answer the larger, fundamental questions about humans and human behavior taught in departments of anthropology.
The study of our human past, combining the themes of time and change, using the material remains that have survived.
Selection for the heterozygote and against the homozygotes (the heterozygote is most ﬁt). Allele frequencies move toward an equilibrium deﬁned by the ﬁtness values of the two homozygotes.
Chemical units (adenine, thymine, guanine,cytosine) that make up part of the DNA molecule and specify genetic instructions.
The study of the biological nature of our recent relatives and ourselves.
Biological Species Concept
A deﬁnition of species that focuses on reproductive capabilities, where organisms from different populations are considered to be in the same species if they naturally interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
A group of organisms that tend to chose mates from within the group.
A mixture of tin (or arsenic) and copper that produced a harder metal. Produced in both the Old and New Worlds.
A long strand of DNA sequences.
A branch of archaeology primarily concerned with the literate Mediterranean civilizations of Greece and Rome.
Both alleles affect that phenotype of a heterozygous genotype, and neither is dominant over the other.
The exchange of DNA between chromosomes during meiosis.
Cultural (social) Anthropology
The study of living peoples with a focus on the shared aspects of the human experience.
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)
Historical preservation in the United States involves survey and excavation to determine that historical and cultural resources are not being destroyed by development and construction.
Selection against one extreme in a continuous trait and/or selection fro the other extreme.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
The molecule that provides the genetic code for biological structures and the means to translate this code.
An allele that masks the effects of the other allele (which is recessive) in a heterozygous genotype.
Ethnography is the study and description of human societies. Ethnographers are anthropologists who study societies in a variety of places around the world.
Four mechanisms that can cause changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next: mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow.
An organism's probability of survival and reproduction. fitness is generally measured in terms of the different genotypes for a given locus.
A type of genetic drift caused by the formation of a new population by a small number of individuals. The small size of the sample can cause marked deviations in allele frequencies from the original population.
A DNA sequence that codes for a functional polypeptide or RNA product.
A mechanism for evolutionary change resulting from the movement of genes from one population to another. Gene flow introduces new genes into a population and also acts to make populations more similar genetically to one another.
A mechanism for evolutionary change resulting from the random fluctuations of gene frequencies from one generation to the next, or from any from of random sampling of a larger gene pool.
The total DNA sequence of an organism.
The genetic endowment of an individual from the two alleles present at a given locus.
A mathematical statement whereby in the absence of nonrandom mating and evolutionary forces, genotype an allele frequencies will remain the same from one generation to the next.
The molecule in blood cells that transports oxygen.
The proportion of total variance in a trait due to genetic variation. This measure is not always the same; the actual value depends on the degree of environmental variation in any population.
The two alleles at a given locus are different.
Refers primarily to the archaeology of the civilizations of the recent industrial era, since 1700 or so.
Genes that code for the same character.
Both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A casting of pure metal intended for transport and reuse, usually oblong or disk shaped.
Mating between two biologically related individuals.
A section of DNa that does not code for the amino acids that make up proteins. It is contrasted with an exon.
The study of human languages.
Alleles on the same chromosome are inherited together.
The specific location of a gene or DNA sequence on a chromosome.
Lost Wax Casting
A technique for creating detailed metal castings using wax as the mold. The molten metal replaces the wax and replicates the mold.
Long-term evolutionary change. The study of macroevolution focuses on biological evolution over many generations and on the origin of higher taxonomic categories, such as species.
The creation of sex cells by replication of chromosomes followed by cell division. Each sex cell contains 50% of an individual's chromosomes (one from each pair).
The branch of genetics concerned with patterns and processes of inheritance. This field as named after Gregor Mendel, the first scientist to work out man of these principles.
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
A law stating that the segregation of any pair of chromosomes dos not affect the probability of other pairs of chromosomes.
Mendel's Law of Segregation
A law stating that sex cells contain one of each pair of alleles.
The from of RNA that transports the genetic instructions from the DNA molecule to the site of protein synthesis.
Short-term evolutionary change. The study of microevolution focuses on changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next.
A small amount of DNA that is located in the mitochondria of cells. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only through the mother.
The process of replication of chromosomes in body cells. Each cell produces two identical copies.
A condition in which one chromosome rather than a pair is present in body cells.
A mechanism for evolutionary change resulting from a random change in the genetic code; the ultimate source for all genetic variation. Mutations must occur in sex cells to cause evolutionary change.
Patterns of mate choice that influences the distribution of genotype and phenotype frequencies. Nonrandom mating does not lead to changes in allele frequencies.
The DNA that is contained in the nucleus of the cell.
A flattening of the back of the head caused by hard crib boards in infancy. Noted among the Moche and many other Native American groups in the New World.
Wide, biblike necklaces or plates worn over the chest area, part of costume or armor.
The observable appearance of a given genotype in the organism. The phenotype is determined by the relationship of two alleles at a given locus, the number of loci, and often environmental influences as well.
A single allele that has multiple effects on an organism.
A complex genetic trait affected by two or more loci.
A discrete genetic trait in which there are at least two alleles at a locus having frequencies greater than 0.01.
The time in the past before written history, often synonymous with archaeology.
False or misleading claims about the nature of the world or the past, masquerading as science.
Abrupt and sudden changes in the pace of evolution.
An allele whose effect is masked by the other allele (which is dominant) in a heterozygous genotype.
The production of new combinations of DNA sequences caused by the exchange of DNA during meiosis.
A gene that acts a genetic switch to turn protein-coding genes on or off.
RNA (ribonulcleic acid)
The molecule that functions to carry out the instructions for protein synthesis specified by the DNA molecule.
Sickle Cell Anemia
A genetic disease that occurs in a person homozygous for the sickle cell allele, which alters the structure of red blood cells.
Selection against the extreme values, large or small, in a continuos trait.
A generally accepted explanation of observed events or relationships.
A free-floating molecule that is attracted to a strand of messenger RNA, resulting in the synthesis of a protein chain.
A condition in which 3 chromosomes rater than a pair occur. Down syndrome is caused by trisomy by the addition of an extra chromosome to the 21st chromosome pair.
A large, solid, mudbrick stepped tower. Stairways lead to a small temple on top.
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