AP World History Unit 5
Terms in this set (82)
Bourbon ruler of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Prime minister of Sardinia (northern Italy) who vowed to drive out the Austrians and worked towards a united Italy.
1818-1883. German socialist who blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian
saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production
preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
the leader of the Committee of Public Safety that began the Reign of Terror
A British politician who extended the vote to the rich middle class in order to broaden the political base of the conservative party
Leader of the British Tory Party who engineered the Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to the working class. Added the Suez Canal to English overseas holdings.
Otto Can Bismarck
created a coalition with Austria-Hungary and Russia
Unification of Germany
1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
statement of revolutionary ideals adopted by the National Assembly; stated that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights"
Congress of Vienna
Meeting in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes
Favorable to progress or reform; believing in maximum possible individual freedom; tolerant, open-minded; generous (adj); a person with such beliefs or practices (noun)
Reform Bill of 1832
Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education, came to concentrate on the right to vote, won support particularly for middle class women, active in western Europe at the end of the 19th century, revived light of other issues in the 1960s
19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
An alliance consisting of Russia, France, and Britain that was one of the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I
defined the reign of terror, its fast-falling blade extinguished life immediately, introduced as a more humane way of beheading
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century
opposed revolutionary goals
advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church
Political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century
Advocated broader voting rights than liberals
in some cases advocated outright democracy
urged reforms in favor of the lower classes
a reform movement among English workers and radicals that demanded universal suffrage and other political and social rights for the working classes
Political Movement with origins in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution, particularly workers and women
Became more critical that constitutional issues after 1870
mass leisure culture
an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports.
second major type of European overseas possession, but within this type there were different patterns of European occupation and indigenous response. These were areas such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decreased the native population. White dominions are a part of this.
Australia, Canada, and New Zealand
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.
architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of the Raj in northern India.
An African Bantu tribe that fought the British but lost and fell under British rule
Dutch settlers in South Africa
The indigenous people of New Zealand
Captain James Cook
Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777 to 1779 resulting in opening of islands to the West, convinced Kamehameha to establish a unified kingdom in the islands
Hawaiian prince; created unified kingdom of Hawaii with British backing by 1810; promoted westernization.
Troops that served the British East India Company; recruited from various warlike peoples of India.
British political establishment in India; developed as a result of the rivalry between France and Britain in India.
battle of Plassy
He defeated the Nawab at Plassey in 1757 and captured Calcutta. The battle was preceded by the attack on British-controlled Calcutta by Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah and the Black Hole incident. The British sent reinforcements under Colonel Robert Clive and Admiral Charles Watson from Madras to Bengal and recaptured Calcutta.
a Hindu practice whereby a widow immolates herself on the funeral pyre of her husband
Areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants
white racial supremacy
Belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; peaked in acceptance in decades before World War I; supported by social science doctrines of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer
(1743-1803) Leader of the slave rebellion on the french sugar island of st. Domingue in 1791 that led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
Mexican priest who established an independence movement among American Indian and mestizos in 1810.
despite early victories, was captured and executed
Creole military officer in northern South America
won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822.
Military success led to creation of independent state of Gran Colombia
Jose de San Martin
Leader of the struggle for independence in southern South America. Bourn in Argentina he served in Spanish Army but joined in the movement for independence and led the revolutionary army that crossed the andes and helped to liberate Chile in 1817-18
later collaborating with Simon Bolivar in the liberation of Peru. As "protector of Peru" he instituted a number of liberal reforms. For political reasons he went into exile in Europe in 1823
Seized power in Mexico after collapse of empire of Mexico in 1824. After brief reign of liberals, seized power in 1835 as caudillo. Defeated by Texans in war for independence in 1836. Defeated by United States in Mexican-American War in 1848. Unseated by liberal rebellion in 1854.
(1806-1872) Indian governor of state of Oaxaca in Mexico. Leader of rebellion against Santa Anna. Liberal government defeated by French intervention under Emperor Napoleon III of France and establishment of Mexican Empire under Maximilian. Restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872.
Proclaimed Emperor Maximilian of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862. Ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Benito Juarez in 1867.
Juarez's successor. First president, and the virtual dictator. Through political repression, produced economic rapid growth and stability.
Independent leader who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies. Sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule. Typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
American declaration stated in 1823. Established that any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americans would be considered and unfriendly act by the United States. Supported by Great Britain as a means of opening Latin American trade.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hudalgo
Agreement that ended the Mexican-American War. Provided for loss of Texas and California to the United States. Left legacy of distrust of the United States in Latin America.
Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860. Created major export commodity for Brazilian trade. Led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.
War fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898. Centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico. Permitted American intervention in Caribbean annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
An aspect of American intervention in Latin America. Resulted from United States support for Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus. Provided short route between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Completed in 1914.
(1785-1839) Ottoman Sultan. Built a private, professional army. Fermented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with his private army. Destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies. Initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents.
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908. Nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties. Deposed in coup in 1908.
Began as slaves for Muslim overlords. Came to rule Egypt as a vassal of the Ottoman sultans. Eventually overthrown by Napoleon's troops in 1798.
Won power struggle in Egypt following fall of Mamluks. Established mastery of all Egypt by 1811. Introduced effective army based on Western tactics and supply and a variety of other reforms. By 1830s was able to challenge Ottoman government in Constantinople. Died in 1848.
in Sufi belief system, a promised deliverer. Also name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th-century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan.
Confucian scholar and Manchu emperor of Qing dynasty from 1661 to 1722. Established high degree of signification among the Manchus.
Head of Revolutionary Alliance, an organization that led 1911 revolt against Qing dynasty in China. Briefly elected president in 1911, but yielded in favor of Yuan Shikai in 1912. Created Nationalist party of China (Guomindang) in 1919. Died in 1925.
Series of reforms in Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876. Established Western-style university, state postal system, railways, and extensive legal reforms. Resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876.
Descendants of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867. Formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.
Built across Isthmus of Suez to connect Mediterranean Sea with Red Sea in 1869. Financed by European investors. With increasing indebtedness to khedives, permitted intervention of British into Egyptian politics to protect their investment.
Manchu dynasty that seized control of China in mid-17th century after decline of Ming. Forced submission of nomadic peoples far to the west and compelled tribute from Vietnam and Burma to the south.
Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty. Specialized in the import-export trade on China's south coast. One of the major links between China and the outside world.
Fought between the British and Qing China beginning in 1839. Fought to protect British trade in opium. Resulted in resounding British victory, opening of Hong Kong as British port of trade.
Broke out in south China in the 1850s and early 1860s. Led by Hong Xiuquan, a semi-Christianized prophet. Sought to overthrow Qing dynasty and Confucian basis of scholar-gentry.
Braided ponytails that were the ethnic Chinese fashion under Manchu rule. Cut off by young revolutionaries, such as the Taipings and those following Sun Yat-sen, as an act of defiance.
(r. 1894-1917) Tsar who took the throne after Alexander II's assassination, a weak ruler who used expansionist ventures to delfect attention fro domestic issues and neutralize revolutionary movements
The last czar of the Romanov dynasty, whose government collapsed under the pressure of World War I (1894-1917)
(r. 1855-1881) Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
son of Nicholas I
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
American commodore who visited Edo Bay with American fleet in 1853; insisted on opening ports to American trade on threat of naval bombardment; won rights for American Trade with Japan in 1854
Political revolt in Russia in 1825, led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms, put down by Tsar Nickolas I
Fought between 1854 and 1856; began as Russians attempted to attack Ottoman Empire; Russia opposed by France and Britain as well; resulted in Russian defeat in the face of Western industrial technology; led to Russian reforms under Tsar Alexander II
emancipation of the serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
local political councils created as part of reforms of Tsar Alexander II (1860s); gave some Russians, particularly middle-class professionals, some experience in government; councils had no impact on national policy
Political groups seeking abolition of all formal government; formed in many parts of Europe and Americas in late 19th and early 20th centuries; particularly prevalent in Russia, opposing tsarist autocracy and becoming a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881
National parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution
This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to its modern form. Fundamental changes affected its social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign relations. The period corresponded with the reign of Emperor Meiji after 1868, and lasted until his death in 1912.
Japanese parliament established as part of the constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government but not control it.
Huge industrial combines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization
War fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894 and 1895; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aims because of Western Insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaodong peninsula