APWH Chapter 16 Vocab
Terms in this set (44)
15th Century - this was adapted into gunnery; advances in metalwork allowed the creation of the first guns and cannons, West began to have military advantage over everywhere else
Dutch East India Company
Trading companies of Dutch merchants. monopoly of trade in the West Indies (Caribbean). They sought to eliminate any competition mostly in spain, between merchant trading posts. Island of Taiwan off of China.
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world. Allowed Spain to claim the Phillipines.
made voyage from Britsol, England in 1497 on the ship Matthew and claimed land in Canada, mistaking it for Asia, for King Henry VII of England
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428) Threatened by Spain's exploration, brought iron pots and gold for spices from India; Ships threatened and killed Indian merchants
English firm Muscovy Company had him find a northern route to Asia - two unsuccessful voyages finding ice-free paths; joined Dutch East India Company later (1609) and explored what would be the Hudson river, Hudson straight, and Hudson Bay; eventually overthrown by crew
Portuguese explorer that became the first European ecplorer to round the southern tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope); opened way for sea route from Europe to Asia
Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492; initiated European discoveries in Americas.
Ferdinand and Isabella
marriage united provinces of Castile and Aragon in 1496; basis for unification of Spain; supported the explorations of Christopher Columbus
Sir Francis Drake
British explorer, slaver trader, fierce warrior, and pirate working for the government (privateer); led second voyage of sailing around the world, died of fever at sea (lame) near Panama on a voyage intending to attack Spanish settlements in West Indies
Biological and ecological exchange that occurred after European arrival in the New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to the Americas; animals, plants, and diseases moved between the Old and New Worlds.
a tax or price to pay on a particular class of imports or exports; tariff policies discouraged manufacturing in colonial areas and stimulated home-based manufacturing
workers or working-class people, regarded collectively; the lowest class in ancient Rome
domestic manufacturing system
a manufacturing system whereby workers make products in their own homes with supplies given to them
Battle of Lepanto
Spanish-directed fleet defeated the Ottoman Empire navy, eastern Med. This ruined any Muslim hopes of successful rivalry against European naval power, could not challenge them on international routes
A crop produced for the commercial gain rather than the use of the farmer
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state
nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking/commercial services. More advanced than the rest
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
members of a republic and democratic faction in England during the period of the Civil Wars and Commonwealth; emphasized political sovereignty, extended suffrage, common land ownership, equality in law, and religious tolerance
an economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade
sustained increase in the price level of goods over in an economy over a period of time.
one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It allowed a single weaver to weave much wider fabrics, and it could be mechanized, allowing for automatic machine looms
Seven Years' War
Fought both in continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in India and North America
Treaty of Paris
treaty that ended the Seven Years War, arranged in 1763, granted new France to England in exchange for land in the Caribbean
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
establisher of the first colony (modern day Panama), Spanish explorer, 1509
Name for the Dutch who were the first European settlers in South Africa
One of the most successful examples of conquest in the New World; 1502, came to Americas, joined Balboa's colony and received a cattle ranch. Tried to have two exhibitions to Peru (wealth) with a priest and a soldier but failed. Returned to Spain and the king granted him governance of the new province, so he attacked and divided the INCA EMPIRE; many revolts during his rule; Assassinated by Inca rebels
Emperor of the Incan Empire when Pizarro invaded; was captured by Spanish, paid for handsomely in ransom, and then strangled.
set sail from England trying to find Pennsylvania, given to him by King Charles II
Used by Europeans for navigation beginning in the 15th century. This was copied from the Arabs who had copied it from the Chinese
Line of Demarcation
Treaty between Spain and Portugal that divided up new territories in Americas
a small, fast Spanish or Portuguese sailing ship of the 15th-17th centuries.
British East India Company
trading company given government monopolies of trade in designated regions; not watched by state; raise armies, coin money. This particular company played an important role in India during the 18th century
What were the motives of the European explorers and colonists in this time period?
rapid population growth, commerce, new learning, and the rise of competing nation-states
Which determinism was the most important factor of social change in the 16th century?
the rise in prices and the shift from trade centered on the Mediterranean to one centered on the Atlantic; creation of money markets and in general an increasing sophistication in business practices, a solidification in the divide between eastern and western European agricultural systems, the emergence of a handful of economically dominant cities, and a strong development of rural industry (Economic)
How did society's view towards the poor change during this time period?
Citizens of Europe began to have a Poor Law Tax, obligating them to support the lower class; poverty had increased and was becoming the responsibility of the people. Three categories of the poor and how they were treated: the deserving poor (elderly, children, families in sticky financial situation) the undeserving poor (criminals, beggars, migrant workers) and the deserving unemployed (capable of having income, can't get a job)
How did the witchcraft persecutions of the 16th and 17th centuries reflect the tensions in European society
People were freaking out... because witches and stuff. Spooky. Social factors (mainly women accused of being witches - MISOGYNY!!!) sexist prejudice was clearly evident
What were the reasons for and effects of population growth in the 18th century in Europe?
rise in fertility and drop in death rate - sharing the resources with more people basically; also rising prices. Lots of poor people, standard of living dropped
What were new techniques in agricultural production in this time period?
rotation of turnips and clover (whatever the heck that means) allowing more food to be produced on the same land; draining of the fenlands (??????????) low-intensity agricultural system based on fishing and fowling was replaced by a high-intensity system based on arable crops (this answer is super iffy)
What was the importance of the potato to Europe?
Found in Peru, brought to Europe, people were like "this is sketchy and gross give it to the cattle" but turns out it sustained the population
Portuguese explorer credited with the first reach of Brazil in 1500; claimed land in name of Portugal; then left Brazil and became second European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope to India