19 terms

Ecology Final part 5

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Adaptations of prey to reduce chances of being eaten
Size refuge.
Escape.
Aposematic.
Crypsis.
Batesian mimicry.
Behavior.
Secondary compounds.
Induced defenses.
Structural defences.
Example of size refuge
Elephants being larger than most prey
Example of Escape
Gazelles very fast to escape predators
Example of body armour
Snails shell
Example of aposematic
Strawberry poison dart frog
Example of crypsis
Leaf bug
Example of batesian mimicry
King snake mimics coral snake
Examples of behavior used to reduce being eaten
Foraging less in the open, living in groups, alarm calls
Examples of induced defenses
Tobacco plant has 2 induced defenses. Secondary compounds and compounds that attract predators.
Adaptations of predators to increase chances of eating
Physical features.
Toxins.
Mimicry.
Detoxification.
Example of adaptation of physical features for predators (2)
Body form of cheetah allows for great bursts of speed.
Snakes can swallow huge prey
Example of toxins in predators
Spiders use poison to subdue their prey
Example of mimicry in predators
Ambush bugs use camo to be undetected by prey until within reach
Example of detoxification in predators
Garter snakes can digest newt skin
How can herbivory and predation affect communities, in general?
Affect distribution or abundance of competitor species.
Reduce rates of growth, survival and reproduction
Example of herbivory that affects communities
High densities of lesser snow geese completely removes saltmarsh vegetation changing distribution and abundance of marsh plant species
Example of predators that affects communities
Starfish predator decreases starfish allowing mussels to persist.
Biodiversity
Species richness spanning multiple spacial scales.
Different levels of biodiversity
Global scale.
Regional scale (gamma).
Local scale (alpha).
Beta diversity (connection between gamma and alpha)