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Final Review

1. An erectile tissue present in the penis but absent from the clitoris is
A. the corpus albicans.
B. the tunica albuginea.
C. the corpus spongiosum.
D. the corpus cavernosum.
E. the corpus luteum.

the corpus spongiosum

2. During milk ejection, milk enters a dilated sac behind the nipple called
A. the lactiferous duct.
B. the lactiferous sinus.
C. the lactiferous bulb.
D. the areola.
E. the lacteal.

the lactiferous sinus

3. Development of a girl's breasts at puberty is called
A. menarche.
B. climacteric.
C. pubarche.
D. thelarche.
E. mammarche.


4. The second half of the menstrual cycle is regulated largely by
A. the corpus luteum.
B. the corpus albicans.
C. the corpus spongiosum.
D. the posterior pituitary gland.
E. the endometrium.

the corpus luteum

5. Which of these is not included in the female vestibule?
A. the urinary orifice
B. the mons pubis
C. the vaginal orifice
D. the labia minora
E. the clitoris

mons pubis

6. The ____ glands of the female are homologous to the bulbourethral glands of the male.
A. greater vestibular
B. lesser vestibular
C. cervical
D. areolar
E. paraurethral

greater vestibular

7. The superior curvature of the uterus is called
A. the fundus.
B. the corpus.
C. the isthmus.
D. the infundibulum.
E. the body.

the fundus

8. Blood is supplied to the endometrium by the ____ arteries between the endometrial glands.
A. arcuate
B. uterine
C. spiral
D. cardinal
E. gonadal


9. The vestibular bulbs serve to
A. secrete mucus into the uterus.
B. constrict the vagina during intercourse.
C. lubricate the cervical canal.
D. lubricate the vagina.
E. neutralize vaginal acidity.

constrict the vagina during intercourse

10. All of the following processes are important in follicular development. Which one occurs first?
A. FSH secretion
B. estrogen secretion
C. LH secretion
D. prolactin secretion
E. GnRH secretion

GnRH secretion

11. Which of these is a consequence of the ischemic phase of the uterine cycle?
A. implantation
B. endometrial necrosis
C. endometrial mitosis
D. endometrial secretion
E. ovulation

endometrial necrosis

12. The ischemic phase of the uterine cycle is brought on by vascular spasms, which in turn are a response to
A. ovulation.
B. menstruation.
C. rising LH level.
D. falling progesterone level.
E. rising progesterone level.

falling progesterone level

13. The layer of uterine mucosa shed in menstruation is called
A. the stratum basale.
B. the stratum functionalis.
C. the myometrium.
D. the perimetrium.
E. the stratum vasculare.

the stratum functionalis

14. A fetus is nourished by way of a disc-shaped organ, the _____, attached to the uterine wall.
A. amnion
B. chorion
C. trophoblast
D. blastocyst
E. placenta


15. Eventually, the placenta secretes the major hormones that regulate pregnancy. Until then, the main source of hormones is
A. the umbilical cord.
B. the endometrium.
C. the corpus luteum.
D. the pituitary.
E. the amnion.

the corpus luteum

16. Which of these is commonly classified as a female secondary sex characteristic?
A. the ovary
B. the labia majora
C. the uterus
D. the distribution of body fat
E. the vagina

the distribution of body fat

17. The release of an egg from the ovary is called
A. menarche.
B. puberty.
C. thelarche.
D. ovulation.
E. orgasm.


18. The constricted part of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina is called the ____.
A. fundus
B. cervix
C. vestibule
D. body
E. internal os


19. An ovarian follicle is considered a secondary follicle when it develops a cavity called the ______.
A. theca
B. cumulus
C. zona pellucida
D. antrum
E. stigma


20. What female structure is homologous to the male scrotum?
A. labia minora
B. labia majora
C. clitoris
D. urethra
E. vagina

labia majora

21. What embryological structure gives rise to primordial female germ cells?
A. gonadal ridges
B. oogonia
C. ovaries
D. embryonic yolk sac
E. neural crest

embryonic yolk sac

22. What cells produce testosterone?
A. seminiferous cells
B. interstitial cells
C. cumulus cells
D. sustentacular cells
E. spermatogonia

interstitial cells

23. What is the pampiniform plexus?
A. a network of blood vessels that supplies the ovaries
B. a network of blood vessels that supplies the uterus
C. a network of blood vessels that facilitates maternal and fetal exchange
D. a network of veins that helps cool the blood to the scrotum
E. a network of veins that helps cool the blood to the penis

a network of veins that helps cool the blood to the scrotum

24. Which gland produces most of the semen?
A. the prostate gland
B. the bulbourethral gland
C. the vestibular gland
D. the seminal vesicles
E. the areolar glands

the seminal vesicles

25. Which of the following is not an adaptation for keeping the testes cool?
A. descent of the testes to the scrotum
B. pampiniform plexus
C. cremaster muscle
D. the testicular artery
E. the dartos muscle

the testicular artery

26. Which of the following structures serves to store sperm?
A. prostate gland
B. seminiferous tubules
C. epididymis
D. spermatic cord
E. seminal vesicles


27. A focus of research is the effect of chemical pollutants called estrogen mimics on reproductive development. What condition has increased in recent years that may be due to an environmental factor such as estrogen mimics?
A. prostate cancer
B. syphilis
D. hypospadias
E. male climacteric


28. How many eggs are produced by the process of meiosis?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 4
D. 8
E. The number varies from month to month.


29. What structure fills the glans penis?
A. the prepuce
B. the bulbourethral glands
C. the corpus spongiosum
D. the corpus cavernosum
E. the external urinary meatus

the corpus spongiosum

30. What structure caps the head of a mature sperm and enables the sperm to penetrate an egg?
A. axoneme
B. acrosome
C. nucleus
D. mitochondria
E. flagellum


31. What is found in the ovarian cortex?
A. only fibrous connective tissue and vessels
B. ovarian follicles and connective tissue
C. the broad ligament
D. the round ligament
E. ovarian follicles and connective tissue, the broad ligament, and the round ligament

ovarian follicles and conective tissue

32. What structure covers both the ovary and testes?
A. vaginal coat
B. parietal peritoneum
C. broad ligament
D. tunica albuginea
E. tunica intima

tunica albuginea

33. How many primary oocytes does a female have by the onset of puberty?
A. 400,000
B. 500,000
C. 1 million
D. 2 million
E. 1,000


34. What condition occurs as a result of the testes not descending into the scrotum?
A. hypospadias
B. hypergonadism
C. cryptgonadism
D. cryptorchidism
E. gubernaculitis


35. Which of the following is a male secondary sex characteristic?
A. the prostate gland
B. the testis
C. a deep voice
D. the ductus deferens
E. the perineal raphe

a deep voice

36. Which cells produce estrogens?
A. theca cells
B. sustentacular cells
C. oocytes
D. pyramidal secretory cells
E. polar bodies

theca cells

37. What female structure does NOT originate from the paramesonephric ducts?
A. uterine tubes
B. uterus
C. upper vagina
D. fallopian tubes
E. lower vagina

lower vagina

38. Which glands open into the lower vagina and provide most of the lubrication for intercourse?
A. paraurethral glands
B. prostate glands
C. greater vestibular glands
D. endometrial glands
E. areolar glands

greater vestibular glands

39. What condition is the Pap smear meant to detect?
A. cervical cancer
B. gonorrhea
C. syphilis
D. hepatitis C
E. HIV infection

cervical cancer

40. What embryonic structure gives rise to the ductus deferens?
A. gonadal ridge
B. mesonephric duct
C. paramesonephric duct
D. yolk sac
E. urogenital sinus

paramesonephric duct

41. What structure frequently causes problems with urination in elderly men?
A. seminal vesicle
B. penis
C. epididymis
D. prostate gland
E. bulbourethral gland

prostate gland

42. Why are polar bodies produced during oogenesis?
A. to lessen the amount of estrogen that is produced during the ovarian cycle
B. to hasten ovulation
C. to discard excess cytoplasm
D. to discard unnecessary chromosomes
E. to increase the chances of sperm penetration

to discard excess cytoplasm

43. What is menarche?
A. age at which breasts begin to develop
B. age at first ejaculation
C. age of last menstruation
D. age of first menstruation
E. age at which a woman gives birth to her first child

age of first menstruation

44. What is NOT true of the substance produced by seminal vesicles?
A. it contains prostaglandins
B. it is a thin, milky fluid
C. it contains proseminogelin, a clotting enzyme
D. it contains fructose
E. it is a viscous, yellowish fluid

it is a thin, milky fluid

45. When is the second meiotic division completed in meiosis?
A. when 4 cells of equal size are produced
B. when the first polar body is discarded
C. shortly after ovulation
D. immediately after fertilization
E. it occurs when a mature follicle develops

immediately after fertilization

46. What is the function of the cremaster muscle?
A. It contracts to draw the testes close to the body for warmth.
B. It becomes engorged with blood during an erection.
C. It contributes to voluntary control of urination.
D. It contracts during ejaculation to assist the movement of sperm through the spermatic cord.
E. In most mammals it serves to move the tail but has no purpose in humans.

it contracts to draw the testes close to the body for warmth

47. Which statement about the parasympathetic nervous system is true?
A. Parasympathetic nerves initiate erection in response to visual stimuli and sexual thoughts.
B. Fibers arising in the sacral division cause dilation of penile blood vessels and engorgement of erectile tissue.
C. Parasympathetic nerves stimulate contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the epididymis and ductus deferens during emission.
D. Parasympathetic nerves constrict the penile arteries when the penis is directly stimulated.
E. Parasympathetic fibers arise from T12 to L2 and pass through the hypogastric and pelvic nerve plexuses.

fibers arising in the sacral division cause dilation of penile blood vessls and engorgement of erectile tissue

48. What is found in the antrum?
A. thecal fluid
B. estrogen
C. testosterone
D. progesterone
E. the zona pellucida


49. What is the function of myoepithelial cells?
A. They sweep the egg into the uterine tube when it is ovulated.
B. They cause contractions in the ductus deferens and epididymis so that sperm are pushed toward the penis.
C. They stimulate uterine contractions during female orgasm.
D. They cause ejection of glandular secretions from seminal vesicles.
E. They cause milk ejection into lactiferous ducts.

they cause milk ejection into lactiferous ducts

50. Which of the following is NOT a bacterial STD?
A. hepatitis C
B. gonorrhea
C. syphilis
D. chlamydia
E. trichomonas

hepatitis C

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