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49 terms

Micro Bio Final Review 3

Micro bio FMl
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nonsense mutations lead to the creation of ____codons
penicilin
___ selection metod selects for mutants by killing growing cells
bacteriocins
__ are antibiotics produced by plasmids
competent
to increase the rate of transformation, recipient cells must be made __
auxotroph
a bacteria is called a ____ if it is a mutant that requires additional nutrients
integrating
ICE stands for ___ and conjugative elements
inversion
some bacterias the ability to cause disease is controlled by,___, which is the reveral of gene's orietnation in the chromosome
conditional
temperature sensitive mutants are an example of ___lethal mutants
intercalating
____ agents cause mutation by inserting themselves between base pairs
Ames
the ___ test attempts to quantify carcinogens by measuring back mutation rates in bacteria
site directed
__ mutations are man- made mutations targeted against specific sequences in the host genome
SOS
regulatory system is a DNA repair mechanism which repairs gaps in the DNA lacking a template
88
In the e coli genome __% of the toal genome is ORF
.02-.3
viron sizes are in the size range of ___um to ___Um
Self assembly
in viruses, capsomers come together by a process call ___ to form intact viruses
Icosahedral
Viruses, whose shape contains 20 faces and 12 verticals, are said to have ____ shape
Enveloped
_____ vriuses have as their outer coat the cytoplasmic membrane of their host
monolayer
tissue culture grown as a(n) __ which is used to quantify viruses
Henrietta Lacks
HELA cells were derived from a woman named ___
Restriction
_____ enzymes attack specific sequences and are used to destroy invading viruses
Latent
Herpes viral infections are an example of ___ type of infections
associated adenovirus
AAV stands for ___ viruses which are used for human gene therapy
scrapies
___is a prion disease often found in sheep
lysogeny
lambda repressor protein is used to create the condition of ___ for lambda
Baltimore
the ____ classification system is used to categorize viruses
contractile sheath
the T4 __ is perhaps the smallest biological "muscle"
siderophores
__ are virulence factors bacteria use to bind iron
10^10- 10^11
there are about __ anaerobic bacteria per gram of fecal matter in the human large intestine
hemolysins
___ are cytolytic toxins that attack red blood cells
propionibacterium
body odor is caused by skin bacteria in the genus ___
septicemia
: temporary blood infections are called bacteremia, whereas potentially life threatening blood infections are called
opportunistic
e coli is a common example of a(n) __ pathogen
leukocidins
__ is a bacterial enzyme that attacks white blood cells
enterotoxin
cholera toxin is an example of a ____ toxin
nosocomial
hospital acquired infections are called __ infections
lysozme
tears contain the enzyme,____, which is part of the bodys nonspecific defense mechanism
methane
in some human intestines bacteria produce a flammable gas ___
collgenase
virulent strains of staphylococcus are positive for the enzyme _____
IgE
Immunoglobulins in the class ___ are responsible for allergic reactions
Toxoid
a vaccines made from denature exotoxins is called _____
complement
the ____ system consists of 11 circulating proteins which haven triggered by an antibody can destroy a target cell
IgG
____ is the only immunoglobulin capable of passing throuh the placenta from mother to child
DNA
a ___ vaccine is simply a plasmid with an antigen from a pathogen inserted
B
the humoral immune response is mediated by the ____lymphocytes
IgA
secretory anitbodies are classified in the group ____
haptens
__ are molecules normally too small to be antigens but can combine the blood proteins to be antigenic
major histocompatability
__ complexes are found on the surface of cells and are unique to individuals
disulfide
In immunoglobulins, the heavy and light chains are held together by __ bonds
cytokines
T cells often release __ which are chemical signals used in the immune response