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A tree in your yard is home to two blue jays, a colony of carpenter ants, a yellowjacket's nest, two squirrels, and millions of bacteria. Together, these organisms represent

a community

The process of homeostasis is:

how organisms maintain a constant internal environment

The theory that "organisms can modify their bodies through the use or disuse of parts, and these modifications can be passed on to their offspring" was formulated by


Evidence that supports the theory of evolution is found in the studies of

all of these

Mammalian appendages with similar bone structures can be used for flying, swimming, running, or grasping. These are examples of _______ structures.


The human appendix is an example of a

vestigial structure

Before the modern era of science, organisms were assigned to species categories on the basis of

capability of interbreeding

Which of the following groups of organisms contains prokaryotic cells?

Bacteria and Archaea

Organisms that can make their own food are called _______; organisms that must obtain energy fron molecules made by other organisms are called ________.

autotroph, heterotroph

Which kingdom below contains eukaryotic members?

all of these

Unrelated organisms living under similar environments that evolve similar appearing structures, undergo

convergent evolution

Dolphins (mammals) and sharks (fish) have stiff dorsal fins projecting from their backs that help them maneuver through water. These structures are best described as

analogous structures

_______ may have evolved from aerobic bacteria and _______ may have evolved from photosynthetic cyanobacteria engulfed by predatory cells.

mitochondria; chloroplasts

_______ eliminated the need for water for reproduction in the plants.


Populations of living organisms once considered separate species are now sometimes assigned to the same species because:

it was discovered that they can produce viable and fertile hybrid offspring

Which of the following is NOT homologous to the others?

insect wing

Two different species of pine release their pollen at different times. This is an example of

temporal isolation

Which of these is the most important cause of extinction?

environmental change

The scientist usually given credit for disproving the theory of spontaneous generation of bacteria was:


It has been proposed that the first atmosphere of Earth had all the following gases EXCEPT:


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