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27 terms

The skeletal System Ch 7

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hematopoiesis
the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
hemo
Prefix meaning blood
poiesis
to make
four types of bone
long, short, flat, and irregular
humerus or upper arm bone
long
carpals or wrist bones
short
frontal or skull bones
flat
vertebrae or spinal bones
irregular
sesamoid
like a sesame seed: or round bones
patella
a small flat triangular bone in front of the knee that protects the knee joint ; sesamoid
diaphysis
shaft: a hollow tube made of hard compact bone, hence a rigid and strong structure light enough in weight to permit easy movement
medullary cavity
hollow area inside the diaphysis of the bone that contains soft yellow bone marrow, an inactive, fatty form of marrow found in the adult skeleton
epiphyses
ends of long bone: red bone marrow fills in small spaces in the spongy bone composing
articular cartilage
a thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis; functions like small rubber cushion would if it were placed over the ends of bones where they form a joint
periosteum
a strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces, where it is covered by articular cartilage
endosteum
a thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity
compact (dense) bone
is a thin layer surrounding cancellous
cancellous bone
also know as the spongy bone or diploe in flat bone: is on the inside of the thin layer of compact bone
trabeculae
are the bony portions of the spongy bone that surround the open spaces
bone and cartilage
the skeletal systems two major type of connective tissues
lamella
Concentric rings made up of groups of hollow tubes of bone matrix
central canal
contains blood vessels and nerves
osteocytes
mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix
osteocytes
were formerly the active bone building cells called osteoblasts
lacunae
small spaces between the lamellae which contain osteocytes
canaliculi
passageways connecting lacunae to each other and to the central canal
periosteum
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone