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Terms in this set (21)
Cesare Lombroso's theory of Atavism
Argued that deviants were biological failures
William Sheldon (ecto-, endo-, and mesomorph)
Contended that body type determined something within people's criminality
Emile Durkheim's theory of Collective Conscience
Believed it was made up of the values, norms, and goals shared by people in a particular society.
As society grows larger, more complex, and more specialized, things that held people together would begin to fail.
Lack of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group
Egoism occurs when people are not well integrated into society. (People who lack ties to their social groups have less to live for).
Robert Merton and anomie
Believed that Anomie was built into the structure of modern society and that it occurred when norms of a society did not match it's social structure.
Responses to anomie
Accepting the goals of success and achievement, and the means of hard work although they may not be going anywhere.
Accept and pursue the accepted goals of society but, when confronted with a lack of legitimate means, devise new ones.
Follow legitimate means without caring about the goals. Following the rules becomes more important than achieving the goals.
Reject both the goals and legitimate means to them
Reject both cultural goals and means, and substitute new ones.
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin
Suggested that just as legitimate means to success are unequally distributed, so are illegitimate means to success.
Showed through Marijuana research that individuals can not only learn deviant acts, but can learn to enjoy them as well.
Societal Reaction/ Labeling Theory
Focuses not on the one who commits the deviant act but on the response of the audience, it's not what you do but who you are.
Norm violations that a person commits for the first time and without considering them deviant
the process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior
Believed that stigma of negative social labels can work to spoil a person's identity.
Any attribute that discredits a person or disqualifies them from full social acceptance.
Discredible vs. Discredited Identity
Discredible is not yet discredited, and can still be fully accepted into society because their
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