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17 terms

Mitosis

Mitosis words and definition
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Genome
the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism
Genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
Gametes
sex cells
Zygote
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)
Somatic Cells
body cells
Diploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Haploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
Sperm
the male reproductive cell
Ova
female sex cell
Gonad
female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones; ovary or testis
Testes
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
Ovaries
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
Fertilization
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes
Homologous Chromosome
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis
Karyotype
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Synapsis
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis