(Antebellum/Civil War)

Antebellum Period and Civil war
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Terms in this set (...)

1. Cotton Gin
increased the demand for slavery in the south because more seeds were available at a quicker pace
2. Tariff of Abominations
Tariffs hurt the southern economy and damaged trade relationships
Nullification Crisis
John C. Calhoun anonymously wrote the South Carolina Exposition and Protest encouraging the south to reject/ignore (nullify) tariffs. Congress passed the Force Bill, which would allow troops to enter states and collect the taxes. A compromise was reached.
3. Missouri Compromise:
Missouri became a slave state, and Maine became a free state. The Missouri Compromise line was established to determine free and slave territory. The south was angry because there was less slave territory.
4. Kansas-Nebraska Act/Bleeding Kansas
Kansas and Nebraska were given popular sovereignty (this overturned the Missouri Compromise). Pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups fought over the slavery issue (Bleeding Kansas).
5. Popular Sovereignty:
The right for a territory to vote on whether slavery would be allowed in the state or not
6. Dred Scott:
Slave who sued for his freedom after his master died. Supreme court ruled that slaves were property not citizens. They also ruled that Congress did not have the authority to ban slavery in a territory.
7. John Brown:
Violent white abolitionist who felt God told him to help end slavery by killing slave owners. He broke into a federal arsenal but was stopped by a militia. Southern whites feared there were more people like him
8. Denmark Vesey:
Free black man who organized a slave rebellion in Charleston. The plot was uncovered, and he was executed. Black codes were passed.
9. Nat Turner's Rebellion:
Slave rebellion in Virginia, where many whites were killed and many slaves were executed. Southern slave owners were very worried about more rebellions like this one.
10. Compromise of 1850:
California became a free state. The slave trade was outlawed in Washington D.C. The southwest territory was given popular sovereignty. The Fugitive Slave Act was passed.
11. Fugitive Slave Act:
Law enforcement was responsible for helping to track down runaway slaves. This law was rarely enforced.
12. Uncle Tom's Cabin:
Controversial book that fueled the abolitionist movement in the north. It showed the harsh reality of slavery.
13. Election of 1860:
Lincoln was elected because southerners split their votes among three candidates. South Carolina promised to secede because they feared Lincoln would raise tariffs and end slavery.
14. States' Rights
The belief that the federal government should not interfere with state issues/decisions
15. Abolitionist
a person who wanted to end slavery
16. Sarah and Angelina Grimke
two influential abolitionists from South Carolina
Where were the first shots fired in the Civil War?
Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC
Why did the Union Army want to take control of Port Royal Sound?
It was the perfect place to set up headquarters for the blockade of southern ports
What was the purpose of the Union blockade of Charleston?
To keep cotton from being exported and supplies and weapons from being imported into southern states
What was Sherman's strategy in his march to the sea? What was the goal of the strategy?
Total War - destroy homes, railroads, buildings and lives with the hopes of forcing the opponent to surrender
What were some advantages of the Union (Northern) Military?
More money
More soldiers
More railroads
More supplies
What were some advantages of the Confederate Military
passion for the cause
good gun skills
knowledge of the land
superior leadership
. How were women impacted by the Civil War?
Had to take over farms. Many served as nurses. They tried to raise money for the cause. Many lost their husbands and children.
William T. Sherman
Union General that used the strategy of total war. Known for his "March to the Sea"
Robert Smalls
Slave who turned a Confederate ship over to the Union. He later became a Congressman from South Carolina.
Abraham Lincoln
President during the Civil War. Issued the Emancipation Proclamation
Blockade Runners
- Slender ships built for speed, designed to speed through the blockade
Ironclads
ships encased in steel or iron designed to ram into and sink wooden ships
The Hunley
Confederate submarine that became the first submarine to sink an enemy ship
Secession
the act of breaking away (politically)
Confederate States of America
the states that seceded from the Union
Cooperationists
with secession but only with the participation of all slave states
Unionists
did not want to secede because they believed the Constitution protected the right of southern states to own slaves
Secessionists (Fire Eaters)
wanted to secede immediately
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's document that freed slaves in the rebelling states (not accepted by the Confederate states)
Northern (Union) Military Strategy
- Anaconda Plan: 1. Blockade southern ports 2. Occupy the Mississippi River 3. Destroy railroads 4. Capture Richmond, VA
Southern (Confederate) Military Strategy
Fight a defensive war and hope the Union gave up
54th Massachusetts Regiment
One of the 1st all African-American military units. They led a successful attack on Fort Wagner in Charleston