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Micro Chapter 5 Review

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endosymbiosis theory
explanation of the origin of the eukaryotic cell type.
symbiosis
close association between two cells.
cilia
found only in protozoa and animal cells.
flagella
commonly found in protozoa, algae, and a few fungal and animal cells.
cilia
used for both locomotion and feeding; similar but shorter and more numerous than flagella. (found only in protozoa and animal cells)
flagella (eukaryotic)
thicker, structurally more complex ; provides motility. (found in protozoa, algae, and a few fungal and animal cells.
nuclear envelope
two parallel membranes with pores to unite the nucleus and cytoplasm.
nucleolus
site for ribosomal RNA synthesis.
endoplasmic reticulum
microscopic series of tunnels used in transport and storage.
Golgi apparatus
proteins are modified, stored and packaged for transport to final destinations.
nucleus
governs and regulates all cell activities.
lysosome
involved in intracellular digestion of food particles and protecting against invading microorganisms.
hyphae
long, thread-like cells that make up the bodies of filamentous fungi or molds.
chitin
major compound in cell wall of fungi.
mycelium
woven, intertwining mass of hyphae that makes up body or colony of mold.
pseudopodio
provides locomotion and feeding for protozoa.
heterotrophic
type of nutrition that relies on an organic nutrient source.
endosymbiosis
one organism existing inside another.
mycosis
any disease caused by fungus.
dimorphic
can take either form of fungi (hyphae or yeast) depending upon growth conditions, such as temperature.
saprobe
obtain substrates or nutrients from remnants of dead plants and animals in soil or aquatic habitats.
substrate
wide variety of organic materials. (provide nutrients for fungi)
proof of endoymbient theory
1)mitochondria and chloroplast contain own DNA 2)mitochondria and chloroplast have 2 membranes (one that originated from host) 3)mitochondria is same size as bacteria 4)mitochondrial ribosomes are 70S, rather than 80S
mitochondria
provides a constant supply of energy for most eukaryotes.
cristae
folds on inner membrane of mitochondria that hold the enzymes and electron carriers of aerobic respiration.
matrix
chemically complex fluid in mitochondria that holds ribosomes, DNA and the pool of enzymes and other compounds involved in the metabolic cycle.
cytoskeleton
flexible framework of molecules that is criss-crossed through matrix; anchors organelles, provides support, and permits shape changes and movement in eukaryotic cells. (microfilaments and microtubules)
mold
filamentous fungi that contain haploid hyphae which produce spores and mycelium.
yeast
unicellular form of fungus with round to oval shape and characterized by asexual reproduction.
psuedohypha
chain of yeasts formed when buds remain attached in a row.
spores
differentiated, specialized cell form that can be used for dissemination, for survival in times of adverse conditions and for reproduction. (usually unicellular and may develop into gametes or vegetative organisms.
sporangium
fungal cell in that asexual spores are formed by multiple cell cleavage; sac-like head that contains spores connected to the stalk -sporangiospore.
conidia
free spores not enclosed by a spore-bearing sac; most common type of asexual spores. (develop either by pinching off tip of special fertile hypha or segmentation)
zygospores
sturdy diploid spores formed when hyphae of two opposite strains fuse and create a diploid zygote.
Basidiospores
haploid sexual spores formed on the outside of a club-shaped cell.
Ascospores
haploid spores that are created inside a fungal sac.
Saccharomyces
yeast used in making bread or beer.
Histoplasma
cause of Ohio Valley fever.
Microsporum
one cause of ringworm, a fungal skin infection that often grows in a ringed pattern.
Candida albicans
cause of various yeast infections.
Kingdom Protista
includes Algae (photosynthetic) and Protozoan (non-photosynthetic).
protist
any eukaryote that is not a fungus, animal or plant. (Kingdom that includes algae (photosynthetic) and protozoa (non-photosynthetic)
protozoa
unicellular eukaryotes that lack tissues and share similarities in cell structure, nutrition, life cycle, and biochemistry.
algae
group of photosynthetic organisms most readily recognized by their larger members, such as seaweeds and kelps.
plankton
large floating community of microscopic organisms.
trophozite
motile feeding stage of most protozoa that requires ample food and moisture to remain active.
cyst
dormant resting stage that occurs when conditions in the environment become unfavorable for growth and feeding.
dimorphic
can take either form of fungi (hyphae or yeast) depending upon growth conditions, such as temperature.
saprobe
obtain substrates or nutrients from remnants of dead plants and animals in soil or aquatic habitats.
substrate
wide variety of organic materials. (provide nutrients for fungi)
conidia
asexual fungal spores shed as free units from tips of fertile plants.
virulence
in infection, the relative capacity of a pathogen to invade and harm host cells.
immuno-deficient
immune function is incompletely developed, suppressed or destroyed.
dermatophytes
fungal pathogens that are not inherently invasive but can grow when inoculated into the skin wounds or abrasions of healthy people.
normal flora
native microbial forms that an individual harbors. (beneficial or harmless bacteria)
nosocomial
infection not present upon admission to hospital, but incerred while being treated there.
primary pulmonary infection (PPI)
disease that results from the inhalation of fungal spores and their germination in the lungs. (this may serve as a focus of infection that spreads throughout the body)
antibiosis
production of inhibitory compounds such as antibiotics.
thermal dimorphism
grow in two forms stimulated by change in temperature.
tinea versicolor
condition of skin appearing as mottled and discolored pigmentation. (as a result of the yeast Malassezia furfur)
asymptomatic
infection that produces no noticeable symptoms even though the microbe is active in the host tissue.
autotroph
microorganism that requires only inorganic nutrients and whose sole source of carbon is carbon dioxide. (synthesizes their own food)
systemic mycosis
infection involving multiple organs.
subcutaneous mycosis
infection contained in the skin.
cutaneous mycosis
infection on surface of skin.
superficial mycosis
infection most near the surface.
primary pathogen
can cause disease in completely healthy host.
opportunist pathogen
can only cause disease in immuno-deficient host.
mycetoma
chronic fungal infection usually afflicting the feet, typified by swelling and draining lesions. (maduormycosis or maduar foot)
agar
polysaccharide found in seaweed and commonly used to prepare solid culture media.
vector
animal that transmits infectious agents from one host to another, usually a biting or piercing arthropod like the tick, mosquito or fly. (infectious agents can be conveyed mechanically by contact or biologically in which the parasite develops in the vector)
zoonosis
infectious disease indigneous to animals that humans can acquire through direct or indirect contact with infected animals.
dysentery
diarrheal illness caused by exotoxins. (bloody diarrhea)
hermaphroditic
male and female sex organs are in the same worm.
parasitic
utilizing the tissues and fluids of a live host. (takes, but does not give back)
saprotrophic
organism living off dead organic matter. (leftovers of organisms; decomposers)
heterotrophic
organism feeding on others.
diarrhea
acute syndrome of intestinal tract in which the volume, fluid content and frequency of bowel movements increase.
STD
pathogens that are contracted by sexual means.
absorptive feeding
feed on cellular level by absorption.
keratin
primary protein of the epidermal tissues of vertebrates (skin, nails, hair, feathers, horns).
septate
condition in most fungi, in which the hyphae are divided into segments by cross walls or septate with pores that allow the flow of organelles and nutrients between compartments.
aseptate
condition in which hyphae consist of one long, continuous cell not divided into compartments by cross walls.
dikaryotic
contains diploid nucleus. (formed when compatible nuclei from two different cells break down the wall between the cells to cohabitat a compartment without sexual reproduciton)
dermatophytes
fungus that feeds on protein keratin in hair, nails, and skin. (causes infection, such as ringworm and athlete's foot)
candida
type of fungi that causes yeast infections and thrush.
penicillium
source of first antibiotic.
Alexander Fleming
witnessed antibiosis, chemicals released by fungus to inhibit growth of bacteria; developed 1st antibiotic to kill bacteria.
ecology
interactions with the environment.
budding
type of asexual reproduction that takes place in yeasts. (yeast buds and forms two cells)
Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi)
fungi which do not fit into the taxonomic classifications of fungi because sexual form of reproduction has never been observed. (example: candida - cause yeast infections and thrush)
4 groups of Protozoa
1)Flagellates 2)Amoebas 3)Ciliates 4)Apicomplexans
types of Apicomplexans
Plasmodium (malaria) and Toxoplasma
types of Mastigophora
Trypanosoma sp., Trichomonas, and Leishmania (flagellates)
type of Sarcodina
Entamoeba (amoebas)
type of Ciliophora
Paramecium (ciliates)
vector-borne diseases
Trypanosomiasis and Leismaniasis
Entamobe histolytica (Amebiasis)
pathogenic amoeba infected by ingesting food or drink contaminated with cysts released by an asymptomatic carrier.
Trichomoniasis vaginalis
pathogen that only lives in eurogenital tract; only sexually transmitted.
Giardia lamlia
ingested as fecal contaminant; inactive cyst survives outside of host then becomes active when ingested. (Camper's Diarrhea)
Plasmodium
infected by vector: mosquito that targets liver, blood or kidney. (malaria)
Trypanosoma brucei
infection by vector: tsetse fly that targets the CNS. (African sleeping sickness)
Trypanosoma cruzi
infection by vector: kissing bug (reduviid) that targets the heart and large intestine. (Chagas disease) (bug bites near eye or mouth then defecates, which is then inoculated by self.)
Leishmaniasis
infection by vector: sand fly; parasite enters into rbc's and multiplies in macrophages. which causes cutaneous lesions, but if macrophages migrate- systemic disease occurs, which involves visceral infection - affecting internal organs.
Taxoplamosis gondii
infection involving definitive host - cat, which is acquired by eating rodents or birds and transmitted by way of fecal contamination (cysts in cat feces). (pregnancy - cat litters are dangerous since pathogen can cross over thru placenta)
apicomplexan (sporozoan)
causitive agent of #1 killer in history that contains complex of organelles at apex of cell.
flagellates
use single or multiple flagella.
amoebas
use pseudopodia for ameboid motion and phagocytosis for feeding.
ciliates
use cilia for locomotion and feeding.
apicomplexans
non-motile protozoa.
meningo encephalitis
disease that occurs from pathogenic amoeba invading the nasal passages through contaminated water exposure that results in rapid, massive destruction of brain and spinal tissue. (Naegleria)
intermediate (secondary) host
immature parasite that is unable to reproduce.
definitive (final) host
mature parasite that is capable of reproducing.
dinoflagellates (pyrrophyta)
type of algae that produces toxins in water that causes Red Tide.
algae
important ecologically ; major constituent of food web.
fungal spores
reproductive spores
bacterial spores
survival spores
conidia
important mold-form ascomycete. (example: penicillium)
Zygomycota
sexual spores: zygospores and asexual spores: sporangiospores, conidia (example: Rhizopus)
Ascomycota
produces haploid spores in fungal sac, or ascus.
examples of Ascomycota
Saccharomyces, Histoplasma, Penicillium, Microsporum, Candida
Basidiomycota
produces haploid sexual spores and asexual spores - conidia. (example: mushrooms)
fungi
heterotrophic; cells are haploid; cell walls composed of chitin; reproduce sexually and asexually. (2 types: molds and yeasts)
types of filaments (hyphae)
aseptate, septate, multinucleate
sporangiospore
the stalk or vessel full of spores; spores are contained.
conidia
spores produced outside of stalk; spores not contained.
asexual spores
1)sporangiospores 2)conidia (conidiospores)
sexual spores
1)zygospores 2)ascospores 3)basidiospores