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endosymbiosis theory

explanation of the origin of the eukaryotic cell type.


close association between two cells.


found only in protozoa and animal cells.


commonly found in protozoa, algae, and a few fungal and animal cells.


used for both locomotion and feeding; similar but shorter and more numerous than flagella. (found only in protozoa and animal cells)

flagella (eukaryotic)

thicker, structurally more complex ; provides motility. (found in protozoa, algae, and a few fungal and animal cells.

nuclear envelope

two parallel membranes with pores to unite the nucleus and cytoplasm.


site for ribosomal RNA synthesis.

endoplasmic reticulum

microscopic series of tunnels used in transport and storage.

Golgi apparatus

proteins are modified, stored and packaged for transport to final destinations.


governs and regulates all cell activities.


involved in intracellular digestion of food particles and protecting against invading microorganisms.


long, thread-like cells that make up the bodies of filamentous fungi or molds.


major compound in cell wall of fungi.


woven, intertwining mass of hyphae that makes up body or colony of mold.


provides locomotion and feeding for protozoa.


type of nutrition that relies on an organic nutrient source.


one organism existing inside another.


any disease caused by fungus.


can take either form of fungi (hyphae or yeast) depending upon growth conditions, such as temperature.


obtain substrates or nutrients from remnants of dead plants and animals in soil or aquatic habitats.


wide variety of organic materials. (provide nutrients for fungi)

proof of endoymbient theory

1)mitochondria and chloroplast contain own DNA 2)mitochondria and chloroplast have 2 membranes (one that originated from host) 3)mitochondria is same size as bacteria 4)mitochondrial ribosomes are 70S, rather than 80S


provides a constant supply of energy for most eukaryotes.


folds on inner membrane of mitochondria that hold the enzymes and electron carriers of aerobic respiration.


chemically complex fluid in mitochondria that holds ribosomes, DNA and the pool of enzymes and other compounds involved in the metabolic cycle.


flexible framework of molecules that is criss-crossed through matrix; anchors organelles, provides support, and permits shape changes and movement in eukaryotic cells. (microfilaments and microtubules)


filamentous fungi that contain haploid hyphae which produce spores and mycelium.


unicellular form of fungus with round to oval shape and characterized by asexual reproduction.


chain of yeasts formed when buds remain attached in a row.


differentiated, specialized cell form that can be used for dissemination, for survival in times of adverse conditions and for reproduction. (usually unicellular and may develop into gametes or vegetative organisms.


fungal cell in that asexual spores are formed by multiple cell cleavage; sac-like head that contains spores connected to the stalk -sporangiospore.


free spores not enclosed by a spore-bearing sac; most common type of asexual spores. (develop either by pinching off tip of special fertile hypha or segmentation)


sturdy diploid spores formed when hyphae of two opposite strains fuse and create a diploid zygote.


haploid sexual spores formed on the outside of a club-shaped cell.


haploid spores that are created inside a fungal sac.


yeast used in making bread or beer.


cause of Ohio Valley fever.


one cause of ringworm, a fungal skin infection that often grows in a ringed pattern.

Candida albicans

cause of various yeast infections.

Kingdom Protista

includes Algae (photosynthetic) and Protozoan (non-photosynthetic).


any eukaryote that is not a fungus, animal or plant. (Kingdom that includes algae (photosynthetic) and protozoa (non-photosynthetic)


unicellular eukaryotes that lack tissues and share similarities in cell structure, nutrition, life cycle, and biochemistry.


group of photosynthetic organisms most readily recognized by their larger members, such as seaweeds and kelps.


large floating community of microscopic organisms.


motile feeding stage of most protozoa that requires ample food and moisture to remain active.


dormant resting stage that occurs when conditions in the environment become unfavorable for growth and feeding.


can take either form of fungi (hyphae or yeast) depending upon growth conditions, such as temperature.


obtain substrates or nutrients from remnants of dead plants and animals in soil or aquatic habitats.


wide variety of organic materials. (provide nutrients for fungi)


asexual fungal spores shed as free units from tips of fertile plants.


in infection, the relative capacity of a pathogen to invade and harm host cells.


immune function is incompletely developed, suppressed or destroyed.


fungal pathogens that are not inherently invasive but can grow when inoculated into the skin wounds or abrasions of healthy people.

normal flora

native microbial forms that an individual harbors. (beneficial or harmless bacteria)


infection not present upon admission to hospital, but incerred while being treated there.

primary pulmonary infection (PPI)

disease that results from the inhalation of fungal spores and their germination in the lungs. (this may serve as a focus of infection that spreads throughout the body)


production of inhibitory compounds such as antibiotics.

thermal dimorphism

grow in two forms stimulated by change in temperature.

tinea versicolor

condition of skin appearing as mottled and discolored pigmentation. (as a result of the yeast Malassezia furfur)


infection that produces no noticeable symptoms even though the microbe is active in the host tissue.


microorganism that requires only inorganic nutrients and whose sole source of carbon is carbon dioxide. (synthesizes their own food)

systemic mycosis

infection involving multiple organs.

subcutaneous mycosis

infection contained in the skin.

cutaneous mycosis

infection on surface of skin.

superficial mycosis

infection most near the surface.

primary pathogen

can cause disease in completely healthy host.

opportunist pathogen

can only cause disease in immuno-deficient host.


chronic fungal infection usually afflicting the feet, typified by swelling and draining lesions. (maduormycosis or maduar foot)


polysaccharide found in seaweed and commonly used to prepare solid culture media.


animal that transmits infectious agents from one host to another, usually a biting or piercing arthropod like the tick, mosquito or fly. (infectious agents can be conveyed mechanically by contact or biologically in which the parasite develops in the vector)


infectious disease indigneous to animals that humans can acquire through direct or indirect contact with infected animals.


diarrheal illness caused by exotoxins. (bloody diarrhea)


male and female sex organs are in the same worm.


utilizing the tissues and fluids of a live host. (takes, but does not give back)


organism living off dead organic matter. (leftovers of organisms; decomposers)


organism feeding on others.


acute syndrome of intestinal tract in which the volume, fluid content and frequency of bowel movements increase.


pathogens that are contracted by sexual means.

absorptive feeding

feed on cellular level by absorption.


primary protein of the epidermal tissues of vertebrates (skin, nails, hair, feathers, horns).


condition in most fungi, in which the hyphae are divided into segments by cross walls or septate with pores that allow the flow of organelles and nutrients between compartments.


condition in which hyphae consist of one long, continuous cell not divided into compartments by cross walls.


contains diploid nucleus. (formed when compatible nuclei from two different cells break down the wall between the cells to cohabitat a compartment without sexual reproduciton)


fungus that feeds on protein keratin in hair, nails, and skin. (causes infection, such as ringworm and athlete's foot)


type of fungi that causes yeast infections and thrush.


source of first antibiotic.

Alexander Fleming

witnessed antibiosis, chemicals released by fungus to inhibit growth of bacteria; developed 1st antibiotic to kill bacteria.


interactions with the environment.


type of asexual reproduction that takes place in yeasts. (yeast buds and forms two cells)

Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi)

fungi which do not fit into the taxonomic classifications of fungi because sexual form of reproduction has never been observed. (example: candida - cause yeast infections and thrush)

4 groups of Protozoa

1)Flagellates 2)Amoebas 3)Ciliates 4)Apicomplexans

types of Apicomplexans

Plasmodium (malaria) and Toxoplasma

types of Mastigophora

Trypanosoma sp., Trichomonas, and Leishmania (flagellates)

type of Sarcodina

Entamoeba (amoebas)

type of Ciliophora

Paramecium (ciliates)

vector-borne diseases

Trypanosomiasis and Leismaniasis

Entamobe histolytica (Amebiasis)

pathogenic amoeba infected by ingesting food or drink contaminated with cysts released by an asymptomatic carrier.

Trichomoniasis vaginalis

pathogen that only lives in eurogenital tract; only sexually transmitted.

Giardia lamlia

ingested as fecal contaminant; inactive cyst survives outside of host then becomes active when ingested. (Camper's Diarrhea)


infected by vector: mosquito that targets liver, blood or kidney. (malaria)

Trypanosoma brucei

infection by vector: tsetse fly that targets the CNS. (African sleeping sickness)

Trypanosoma cruzi

infection by vector: kissing bug (reduviid) that targets the heart and large intestine. (Chagas disease) (bug bites near eye or mouth then defecates, which is then inoculated by self.)


infection by vector: sand fly; parasite enters into rbc's and multiplies in macrophages. which causes cutaneous lesions, but if macrophages migrate- systemic disease occurs, which involves visceral infection - affecting internal organs.

Taxoplamosis gondii

infection involving definitive host - cat, which is acquired by eating rodents or birds and transmitted by way of fecal contamination (cysts in cat feces). (pregnancy - cat litters are dangerous since pathogen can cross over thru placenta)

apicomplexan (sporozoan)

causitive agent of #1 killer in history that contains complex of organelles at apex of cell.


use single or multiple flagella.


use pseudopodia for ameboid motion and phagocytosis for feeding.


use cilia for locomotion and feeding.


non-motile protozoa.

meningo encephalitis

disease that occurs from pathogenic amoeba invading the nasal passages through contaminated water exposure that results in rapid, massive destruction of brain and spinal tissue. (Naegleria)

intermediate (secondary) host

immature parasite that is unable to reproduce.

definitive (final) host

mature parasite that is capable of reproducing.

dinoflagellates (pyrrophyta)

type of algae that produces toxins in water that causes Red Tide.


important ecologically ; major constituent of food web.

fungal spores

reproductive spores

bacterial spores

survival spores


important mold-form ascomycete. (example: penicillium)


sexual spores: zygospores and asexual spores: sporangiospores, conidia (example: Rhizopus)


produces haploid spores in fungal sac, or ascus.

examples of Ascomycota

Saccharomyces, Histoplasma, Penicillium, Microsporum, Candida


produces haploid sexual spores and asexual spores - conidia. (example: mushrooms)


heterotrophic; cells are haploid; cell walls composed of chitin; reproduce sexually and asexually. (2 types: molds and yeasts)

types of filaments (hyphae)

aseptate, septate, multinucleate


the stalk or vessel full of spores; spores are contained.


spores produced outside of stalk; spores not contained.

asexual spores

1)sporangiospores 2)conidia (conidiospores)

sexual spores

1)zygospores 2)ascospores 3)basidiospores

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