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Act of Toleration

Act passed in Maryland 1649 that granted freedom of worship to all Christians; although it was enacted to protect the Catholic minority in Maryland, it was a benchmark of religious freedom in all colonies. It did not extend to non-Christians, however.

Anne Hutchinson

Charismatic colonists in Massachusetts Bay who questioned whether one could achieve salvation solely by good works; she led Antinomian controversy by challenging the clergy and laws of the colony. She was banished from Massachusetts in 1638 and was killed by Indians in 1643.

Anglican Church

Church of England started by King Henry VIII in 1533; the monarch was head of the church, which was strongest in North America in the Southern Colonies. By 1776, it was the second-largest church in America behind the Congregationalists.

Bacon's Rebellion

Attack by frontiersmen led by Nathaniel Bacon against Native Americans in the Virginia backcountry; when the governor opposed Bacon's action, Bacon attacked Jamestown, burned it, and briefly deposed the governor before the rebellion fizzled. This revolt is often viewed as the first strike against insensitive British policy, as a clash between East and West, and as evidence of the dangers of the indentured servant system.

Board of Trade and Plantations

Chief body in England for governing the colonies; the group gathered information, reviewed appointments in America, and advised the monarch on colonial policy.

Congregationalists (Puritans)

Believed the Anglican Church retained too many Catholic ideas and sought to purify the Church of England; they believed in predestination and also held that God was watchful and granted salvation only to those who adhered to His goodness as interpreted by the church. They were strong in New England and very intolerant of other religious groups.

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