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The book of kells was produced on ______, an animal skin prepared for writing.


Christians in the muslim territories were called ______.


Charlemagne's private chapel was in the city of ______.


Vikings erected large memorial stones:_________ contained inscriptions and __________ were covered with figural decoration.

rune stones; picture stones

The timber churches that survive in rural Norway are called _______ churches, from the four huge staffs that form their structural core.


The burial site discovered at Sutton Hoo revealed the grave's occupant had been buried in a ______.


Why did many Ottonian cathedrals burn down in the eleventh century?

Their timber roofs made them susceptible to fire.

The word _____ refers to the cross worn by Crusaders and pilgrims.


Intellectual life in the Romanesque period involved the establishment of the first universities in the cities of ________, _______, ___________ and __________.

Bologna; Paris; Oxford; Cambridge

The church of Sant Vincenc is and example of the "First Romanesque" because _________.

it relies on stone-vaulting and masonry contruction

The Leaning Tower of Pisa is actually the _______ of the Cathedral complex at Pisa.


Durham Cathedral introduced a new system of masonry __________, which would become a hallmark of later Gothic architecture.

ribbed groin vaults

In the realm of secular architecture, the _______, known as the keep in England or the donjon in France, stood in the middle of a courtyard surrounded by walls.

Great Tower

The Romanesque technique of portraying narrative scenes in the geometric confines of column capitals is called a(n) _________.

historical capital

The Bayeux Embroidery tells the story of the __________ conquest of England.


What religious theme was often used to decorate the tympanum of Romanesque portals?

Christ Enthroned in Majesty

Which of the following contributed to the exchange of artistic styles during the Romanesque period?

Illustrated books
The crusades

Holes cut in the stone of the wall and filled with stained glass are called __________.

plate tracery

The city of ______ was a major center of book production in the Gothic period.


The thirteenth-century cathedral in _______ is an excellent example of the English interpretation of the Gothic style.


The oldest functioning syngogue in Europe is __________.


Gothic cathedrals differ from those built in the Romanesque period in their __________.

shift toward more open, light-filled spaces

True flying buttresses were first used at _________.

the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris

What architechtural feature distinguishes English Gothic cathedrals from those built in France?

A tower at the crossing served as the focal point.

The oldest functioning synagogue in Europe, the Altneuschul, is based on what Christian architectural form?

Gothic hall churches.

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