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Chapters 21-23 with additional information from masteringbiology.

Hierarchy of Organization

In animals, cells are grouped into tissues. Tissues combine to form Organs. Organs are organized into Organ Systems. Organ Systems make up the entire Organism.


The study of the structure of an organism


Study of the function of an organism's structural equipment


Group of similar cells that perform a specific function


Covers the surface of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body

Loose Connective Tissue

The most widespread connective tissue. It binds the EPITHELIA to underlying tissues and holds ORGANS in place.

Adipose Tissue

Stores fat, stockpiles energy, pads and insulates the body.


Is a connective tissue. Red and White blood cells is suspended in plasma.


Connective tissue that forms tendons and ligaments.


Forms the shock-absorbing pads that cushion the vertebrae of the spinal column.


Connective tissue with rubbery fibers that harden with deposits of calcium.

Skeletal Muscle

Responsible for voluntary movements. It is attached to bones by tendons

Cardiac Muscle

Its' contraction accounts for the heartbeat

Smooth Muscle

Found in the walls of various organs and is involuntary.

Nervous Tissue

Found in the brain and spinal cord. Makes the communication of the sensory information possible. Sensory input is received and processed, then motor output is relayed to make body parts respond. The basic unit is the neuron/nerve cell


Consists of 2 or more tissues that performs a specific function. (e.g. heart, liver, stomach, etc.)

Organ System

Teams of organs that work together to perform vital bodily functions.

Endocrine system

Secretes hormones that regulate the body.

Skeletal system

Supports body and anchors muscles.

Circulatory system

Transports substances throughout body.

Respiratory system

Exchanges O2 and CO2 between blood and air.

Integumentary system

Protects body. (Hair, nails, skin)

Uninary system

Rids body of certain wastes.


Mechanical digestion - physical processes (chewing), Chemical digestion - breakdown of food by digestive enzymes. Digestive tubes - mouth and anus.

Human Digestive system

Consists of the alimentary canal and organs that secrete digestive chemicals.


Churns food into a thick soup called ACID CHYME.

Small Intestine

The longest part of the alimentary canal. The major organ for chemical digestion and absorption.

Intestinal Wall

Contains villi and microvilli, which provide a large surface area for absorption.


Absorbs water from the alimentary canal and produces feces.


Break down food molecules in cellular respiration and generate many molecules of ATP.

Metabolic Rate

The rate energy consumption per day.

Circulatory System

A central pump (heart), vascular system (blood vessels), circulating fluid (blood).

Pulmonary Circuit

Carries blood between the heart and the lungs. (Heart to lungs and back)

Systemic Circuit

Carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body. (Heart to body and back)


Carry blood toward the heart.


Allow for exchange between the bloodstream and tissue cells.

White Blood Cells

Fight infections and cancer. AKA leukocytes. 700 times fewer than red blood cells.

Respiratory Surface

Surface must be large enough to take up oxygen for every cell in the body.


Most common respiratory surface of terrestrial organisms. The circulatory system transport oxygen from the respiratory surface to the rest of the body. Air moves through the body from the mouth/nose to the bronchioles.


Dead-end in clusters of air sacs called alveoli.


Carry out the process of gas exchange in the lungs.


Kills 440,000 of Americans every year.

Anatomy is the physiology as...

A book is to reading.

Which best describes the function of the kidneys?

Filtering blood, removing wastes and regulating water balance.

What are the functional units of the kidney?


The active movement of ions and drugs from capillaries into tubules is called...?


If you are dehydrated, which would increase in your kidneys?


The four major categories of tissue are...

nervous, epithelial, connective, and muscle

Homeostasis is the...

maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment


Has no ability to generate heat internally.

Most mechanical processing of food occurs in the..

Oral cavity and stomach

Major segments of the alimentary canal in the correct order.

Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

What is typical of a herbivorous diet?

nuts, leaves, berries

Food vacuoles

Specialized compartments where food particles are digested

What compound in dark chocolate makes it beneficial to health?


Which type of fatty acid is known to be anti-inflammatory?


Vitamin believed to decrease the risk of cognitive decline in aging adults

Vit B12

How do oxygen and carbon dioxide cross capillary walls?


Which vessel distributes oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body in humans?


Blood that flows through the pulmonary veins will be carried to the...

left atrium

Role of the atrioventricular valves in the heart

Allow blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles and to precent the blood from flowing back into the artia while the ventricles contract

Deoxygenated blood is delivered to the heart through

The superior and inferior vena cavae

Sequence of blood flow

atrium, ventricle, artery, arteriole, capillary, venule, vein


Blood cells containing hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein that transport oxygen.

Sequence that air passes through during breathing after it enters the mouth and nose...

pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

During inhalation...

the diaphragm and rib muscles contract


protein that can bind 4 molecules of oxygen

Order of passage as air is inhaled into the lungs

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchiole, alveolus

Red blood cells

transport oxygen

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