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Section 1: The Roman Republic
Terms in this set (41)
What did the early Romans establish?
a republic that grew powerful and spread its influence
Explain the legend about how Rome came to be.
founded in 753 B.C. by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess. The twins were abandoned on the Tiber River as infants and raised by a she-wolf. The twins decided
to build a city near the spot. In reality, it was men not immortals who built the city, and they chose the spot largely for its strategic location and fertile soil.
•built on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River, near the center of the Italian peninsula
•midway between the Alps and Italy's southern tip
•the midpoint of the Mediterranean Sea.
When did the earliest settlers arrive?
Which three groups inhabited the region and battled for control?
the Latins, the Greeks, and the Etruscans.
•built the original settlement at Rome
•a cluster of wooden huts atop one of its seven hills, Palatine Hill.
•considered the first Romans
•established colonies along southern Italy and Sicily.
•cities became prosperous and commercially active
•brought all of Italy, including Rome, into closer contact with Greek civilization.
•native to northern Italy
•skilled metalworkers and engineers.
•influenced the development of Roman civilization.
•boasted a system of writing, for example, and the Romans adopted their alphabet.
•influenced Rome's architecture, especially the use of the arch.
Rome grew from a _________ to a _________.
collection of hilltop villages; city that covered nearly 500 square miles
the heart of Roman political life
Last King of Rome
Tarquin the Proud. A harsh tyrant, he was driven from power in 509 B.C. The Romans declared they would never again be ruled by
•a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
•wealthy landowners who held most of the power
•inherited their power and social status
•claimed that their
ancestry gave them the authority to make laws for Rome
•the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population.
•citizens of Rome with the right to vote
•they were barred by law from holding most important government position
•Rome's leaders allowed
the plebeians to form their own assembly and elect representatives
•protected the rights of the plebeians from unfair acts of patrician officials
•important victory for the plebeians was to force the creation of a written law code
•With laws unwritten, patrician officials often interpreted the law to suit themselves.
•group of ten officials began writing down
-carved on twelve tablets, or tables, and hung in
-became the basis for later Roman Laws
•established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.
What did Roman writers mean when they boasted that Rome had achieved a balanced government?
their government had taken the best features of a monarchy, an aristocracy, and a democracy
•commanded the army and directed the
•power was limited
•term was only one year long.
•same person could not be elected consul again for ten years
•one consul could always overrule, or veto, the other's decisions.
•the aristocratic branch of Rome's government
•both legislative and administrative functions in the republic
•300 members were chosen from the upper class of Roman society
•later on Plebeians were allowed in the senate
•exercised great influence over both foreign and domestic policy
What do the assemblies represent?
the more democratic side of the government
•assembly organized by the plebeians
•elected the tribunes and made laws for the common people—and later for the republic itself.
•the republic could appoint
•a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army
•power lasted for only
•dictators were chosen by the consuls and then elected by the senate.
In addition to government, what did the Romans place great value on?
Serving in the military
•All citizens who owned land were required to serve in the army
•Seekers of certain public offices had to perform ten years of military service
•Roman soldiers were organized into large military units
•made up of some 5,000 heavily armed foot soldiers (infantry
•A group of soldiers on horseback (cavalry) supported each legion
divided into smaller groups of 80 men,
What were key factors in Rome's rise to greatness?
The military organization and fighting skill of the Roman army
What did Rome seek to expand its territories through?
trade and conquest
How did the Romans dominate Italy?
defeated the Etruscans to the north and the Greek citystates to the south
What were the different laws and treatments for each of the territories
•Latins on the Tiber became full citizens of Rome.
•In territories farther from Rome, conquered peoples enjoyed all the rights of Roman citizenship except the vote.
•All other conquered groups fell into a third category, allies of Rome. Rome did not interfere with its allies, as long as they supplied troops for the Roman army and did not make treaties of friendship with any other
Who became partners in Romes growth?
The new citizens and allies
How did the lenient policy toward defeated enemies help Rome?
it helped Rome to succeed in building a long-lasting empire.
What did Rome's location give it easy access to?
the riches of the lands ringing the Mediterranean Sea
What did the Roman merchants trade?
Roman wine and olive oil for a variety of foods, raw materials, and manufactured goods from other lands
•located on a peninsula on the North African coast.
•Its rise to power soon put it in direct opposition with Rome.
Rome and Carthage
fought three wars
1st Punic War
•control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean,
•lasted 23 years
•ended in the defeat of Carthage
2nd Punic War
•Hannibal was the mastermind behind the war
•Hannibal won his greatest victory at Cannae
•army inflicted enormous
losses on the Romans
•the Romans regrouped and with the aid of many allies stood firm.
•They prevented Hannibal from capturing Rome.
•brilliant military strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage's earlier defeat.
•assembled an army of 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, and 60 elephants with the intent of capturing Rome
•led his army on a long trek from Spain across France and through the Alps
3rd Punic War
•Scipio devised a plan to
attack Carthage. This strategy forced Hannibal to return to defend his native city
•Rome laid siege to Carthage
•the city was set afire and its 50,000 inhabitants sold into slavery. Its territory
was made a Roman province.
What did Rome's victories in the Punic Wars give it?
•dominance over the western Mediterranean.
•went on to conquer the eastern half
•Rome's Mediterranean empire stretched from Anatolia in the east to Spain in the west
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Section 2: The Roman Empire
Section 3: Rise of Christianity
Chapter 5: Classical Greece TEST
Chapter 1- Toward CIvilization
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