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138 terms

Psychology Final

STUDY
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operational definition
a description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured
validity
the characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it
reliability
the tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing
population
the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured
sample
the partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study
normal distribution
a frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the mean and fall off toward the tails, and the two sides of the distribution are symmetrical
mode
the "most frequent" measurement in a frequency distribution
mean
the average of the measurements in a frequency distribution
median
the "middle" measurement of a frequency distribution
range
the numerical difference between the smallest and largest measurements in a frequency distribution
double-blind
and observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant
variable
a property whose value can vary or change
correlation
the "co-relationship" or pattern of covariation between two variables, each of which has been measured several times
correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the direction and strength of a correlation, which is signified by the letter r
third-variable problem
the fact that the causal relationship between two variables cannot be inferred from the correlation between them because of the ever-present possibility of a third-variable correlation
experiment
a technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables
independent variable
the variable that is manipulated in an experiment
dependent variable
the variable that is measured in a study
control group
one of the two groups of participants created by the manipulation of an independent variable in an experiment that is not exposed to the stimulus being studied
hypothesis
a specific and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory
neurons
cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information processing tasks
synapse
the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another
resting potential
the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane
action potential
an electrical signal that is conducted along an axon to a synapse
refractory period
the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated
neurotransmitters
chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites
Central Nervous System (CNS)
the part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
the part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles
somatic nervous system
a set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system
autonomic nervous system
a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands. comprised of the Sympathetic (arousing) and Parasympathetic (calming) Nervous Systems
limbic system
a group of forebrain structures including the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the hippocampus which are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory
pituitary gland
the "master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body
occipital lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
parietal lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch
temporal lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language
frontal lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
gene
the unit of hereditary transmission
chromosomes
strands of DNA wound around each other in a double-helix formation
heritability
a measure of the variability of behavioral traits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetic factors
memory
the ability to store and retrieve information over time
encoding
the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into enduring memory
storage
the process of maintaining information in memory over time
retrieval
the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
elaborative encoding
the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory
short-term memory store
a place where non-sensory information is kept for more than a few seconds, but less than a minute
rehearsal
the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
chunking
combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that more easily held in short-term memory
working memory
active maintenance of information in short-term memory
long-term memory store
a place in which information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or years
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
enhanced neural processing that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections
NMDA receptors
a hippocampal receptor site that influences the flow of information from one neuron to another across the synapse by controlling the initiation of long-term potentiation
retrieval cue
external information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind
state-dependent retrieval
the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
explicit memory
the act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences. includes somatic memory (facts and general knowledge) and episodic memory (personally experienced events)
implicit memory
the influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them
procedural memory
the gradual acquisition of skills as the result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things
priming
an enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus
transience
forgetting what occurs with the passage of time
blocking
a failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it
learning
some experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner
classical conditioning
when a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
Unconditioned Response (UR)
a reflexive reaction that reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
Conditioned Response (CR)
a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus
extinction
the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented
spontaneous recovery
the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future
law of effect
the principle that behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated
positive reinforcement
any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it when something desirable is presented
negative reinforcement
any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it when something undesirable is removed
positive punishment
any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it when something unpleasant is administered
negative punishment
any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it when something desirable is removed
Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)
an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made
Variable Interval Schedule (VI)
an operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last enforcement
Fixed Ratio Schedule (FR)
an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made
Variable Ratio Schedule (VR)
an operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses
latent learning
a condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavior change until sometime in the future
observational learning
a condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others
medical model
the conceptualization of psychological abnormalities as diseases that, like biological disease, have symptoms and causes and possible cures
DSM-IV-TR
a classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems
comorbidity
the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual
diathesis-stress model
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
anxiety disorder
the class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature
generalized anxiety disorder
a disorder characterized by chronic or excessive worry accompanied by physical symptoms
phobic disorders
disorders characterized by marker, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations
preparedness theory
the idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears
obsessive compulsive disorder
a disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning
dissociative disorder
a condition in which normal cognitive processes are severely disjointed or fragmented, creating significant disruptions in memory, awareness, or personality that can vary in length
mood disorders
mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature
major depressive disorder
a disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances
bipolar disorder
an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression)
schizophrenia
a disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior
delusion
a patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality
hallucination
a false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation
negative symptoms
emotional and social withdrawal; apathy; poverty of speech; and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and behavior
expressed emotion
emotion over-involvement (intrusiveness) and excessive criticism directed toward the former patient by his or her family
personality disorder
disorder characterized by deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns or thinking, feelings, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress of impaired functioning
antisocial personality disorder
a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood
health psychology
the subfield of psychology concerned with ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and the maintenance of health
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
a psychological disorder characterized by chronic psychological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the trauma to mind
stress
the physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors
stressors
specific events that place demands on a person or threaten the person's well-being
chronic stressor
a source of stress that occurs continuously or repeatedly
General Adaptation Syndrom (GAS)
a three-stage physiological response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered
fight-or-flight response
an emotional physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action
type A behavior pattern
the tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive strivings
burnout
a state physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation
rational coping
facing a stressor and working to overcome it
reframing
finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat
relaxation therapy
a technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body
relaxation response
a condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure
biofeedback
the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possible gain control over that function
social support
the aid gained through interacting with others
placebo effect
a clinically significant psychological or physiological response to a therapeutically inert substance or procedure
somatization disorder
a psychological disorder involving combinations of multiple complaints with no medical explanation
conversion disorder
a disorder characterized by apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary- but that the person experiences as involuntary
somatoform disorder
the set of psychological disorders in which the person displays physical symptoms not fully explained by a general medical condition
hypochondriasis
a psychological disorder in which a person in preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that the symptoms signify a life-threatening illness
aggression
behavior whose purpose is to harm another
altruism
behavior that benefits another without benefitting oneself
reciprocal altruism
behavior that benefits another with the exception that those benefits will be returned in the future
prejudice/ discrimination
a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
deindividuation
a phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
social loafing
the tendency for people to expend less effort when in a group than alone
bystander intervention
the act of helping strangers in an emergency situation
diffusion of responsibility
the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
mere exposure effect
the tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure
social exchange
the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
social influence
the control of one person's behavior by another
observational learning
learning that occurs when one person observes another person being rewarded or punished
norm
a customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture
normative influence
a phenomenon whereby one person's behavior is influenced by another person's behavior because the latter provides information about what is appropriate
norm of reciprocity
the norm that people should benefit from those who have benefitted from them
attitude
an enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event
belief
an enduring pieve of knowledge about an object or event
stereotyping
the process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong
self-fulfilling prophecy
a phenomenon whereby observers bring about what they expect to observe