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Forensic Psych Ch. 3
Psychology of Investigations
Terms in this set (42)
In police interrogation, an aggressive questioning procedure that assumes the suspect is responsible for a criminal offense and has the goal of obtaining a confession.
These are predictions that employ statistics to identify certain facts about a person's background and known behavior that can be related to the behavior being predicted, based on how group of individuals with similar characteristics have acted in the past.
Predictions of behavior that are based primarily on clinical knowledge rather than on statistical or actuarial data.
Coerced internalized false confessions
These occur when innocent persons - who are tired, confused, and highly psychologically vulnerable - come to believe that they actually committed the crime.
Coerced-compliant false confessions
Admissions of guilt most likely to occur after prolonged and intense interrogation experiences, such as when sleep deprivation is a feature. The suspect, in desperation to avoid further discomfort, admits to the crime even knowing that he or she is innocent.
During police interviewing and interrogation, this refers to the cognitive demands placed on the interviewee, with the premise that this will make it more difficult for the interviewee to be deceptive. An example would be asking the person to recount the vents of the past day in reverse order of when they occurred.
Related to hypnosis, this is the perspective that hypnotic participants are not in an altered state of consciousness but rather are playing a role suggested by the hypnotist.
The phenomenon that once a witness commits to a certain viewpoint, such as identification of a face, the witness is less likely to change his or her mind.
Characteristic of a police lineup that unfairly encourages a witness to identify the suspect in custody (e.g. , no lineup members approximate the suspect's age)
The tendency to look for evidence that confirms one's preexisting expectations or beliefs.
Control question test (CQT)
The most preferred procedure by professional polygraphers in cases requiring investigation of specific incidents, such as criminal acts.
Crime scene profiling
The development of a rough behavioral or psychological sketch of an offender based on clues identified at the crime scene.
Criminal investigative analysis
A broad term for the investigation of crime. May or may not include crime scene profiling.
Differential experience hypothesis
States that individuals will have greater familiarity or experience with members of their own race and will thus - in identification procedures - be better able to discern differences among members of their own race.
A lineup procedure in which neither the person making an identification nor the person administering the lineup knows the identity of the suspect.
Equivocal death analysis (EDA)
Reconstruction of the personality profile and cognitive features (esp. intentions) of deceased persons when the cause of death is not clear. Also called psychological autopsies.
Admissions of guilt that are not valid and are often but not necessarily induced by coercive interrogation procedures.
Concerned with analyzing the spatial patterns of crimes committed by numerous offenders over a period of time.
Focuses on the location of the crime and how it relates to the residence or base of operations of the offender. Assumes that serial offenders prefer to commit their crimes near their own residences.
Guilty knowledge test (GKT)
A polygraph test that assesses the extent to which the polygraph examinee is aware of facts about a crime. Preferred to researchers but is used less often by practicing polygraphers than the CQT.
The enhancement or revival of memory though hypnosis.
Hypnotic trance theory
The perspective that hypnosis represents a special state of consciousness that promotes a high level of responsiveness to suggestion and changes in bodily feelings.
Searching for general principles which can be applied to large groups by intense study of one individual.
A method of police interviewing and interrogation that does not presume guilt on the part of the person being questioned, but rather seeks to obtain information about events surrounding a crime.
An investigative method that looks at similarities between crimes and attempts to connect them to the same offender.
Modus operandi (MO)
Actions and procedures an offender uses to commit a crime successfully.
Refers to the search for general principles, relationships, and patterns by examining an combining data from nay individuals.
Enhancement or recovery of memory through non-hypnotic methods, such as free association, fantasy, and recall techniques.
Own-race bias (ORB)
The tendency of people to be able to discriminate between faces of their own race better than those of other races.
Primarily undertaken in an effort to make a reasonable determination of what may have been in the mind of the deceased person leading up to and at the time of death - particularly if the death appears to be a suicide.
The gathering of information on a known individual who poses a threat or is believed to be dangerous.
Illegal singling out of someone by law enforcement solely on the basis of his or her race or ethnicity.
Reconstructive psychological evaluation (RPE)
Reconstruction of the personality profile and cognitive features (especially intentions) after a person is deceased. (Also called psychological autopsy)
The predominant method used by law enforcement in the United States to interview and interrogate criminal suspects.
Sequential lineup (live or photo)
A live or photo lineup in which a witness views individuals in a series, requiring the witness to decide on whether to identify one individual before moving on to another.
Simultaneous lineup (live or photo)
A live or photo lineup in which a witness views individuals all at once.
Identification procedure in which the police present a single suspect to the eyewitness(es) to see if the person or persons will identify that individual as the perpetrator.
The process of collecting data on behavioral, personality, cognitive, and demographic data on previous offenders in an attempt to identify other offenders.
Tendency of people to exhibit the same behavior and tendencies across different situations.
Tendency of people to exhibit the same behavior and tendencies across time.
Occurs when a person seen in one situation is confused with a person seen in another situation.
Voluntary false confession
Confessions to crimes one did not commit, offered without coercion by others such as police or family members.