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Terms in this set (21)
What are the five ways of defining philosophy?
1) The first discipline
2) A love of wisdom
3) Rational Analysis
4) The Examined Life
5) Critical Thinking applied systematically
What are the three main branches of philosophy
What question does Epistemology address?
How do we know? (What is knowledge)
What question does Metaphysics address?
What is real?
What branch does Ethics address?
What ought I to do? (Right and wrong)
In what ways is philosophy the first discipline?
-Historically, with Plato's Academy (also includes geometry)
-Logically, it addresses the most basic questions; and addresses these basic questions within its three main branches (epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics)
-Logically, because it addresses the most basic questions; and it is prior to other disciplines such as religion, science, and the arts
Explain philosophy as the love of wisdom
-Philosophy means "the love of wisdom"
-It has to do with knowing the goal, and how to achieve the goal; The ultimate pursuit of wisdom is ultimate goal, the good (that which supplies meaning to life)
-In wisdom literature, the wise person (one who has emptied his/her cup) is often contrasted by the simple (one who has a full cup) and by the fool (one who has a full cup, but of air)
Explain philosophy as rational analysis
-method of thinking philosophically; begins with the laws of thought (identity, non-contradiction, and excluded middle) and then uses reason to: Identify a thing (concepts), analyze a statement (judgments), and to logically support statements (arguments)
-Logically ordered from concepts, to judgment, to arguments: first we must agree on the meaning of terms being used, then we must agree on the truth of a judgment being presented by looking at the arguments being used in support of those judgments
-Begins with question: What does that mean?; We must establish meaning before we can establish what truth is
what is the examined life?
-Socrates said that "The unexamined life is not worth living". Philosophy begins with self-examination: critical analysis of one's own assumptions
-It begins by identifying one's own views with regard to whether and how we can know anything; what ultimately reality is like; and what the purpose of life is. Once we identify our own position, then we should proceed through critical analysis as to why we hold these positions. Are they supported by reason?
-The concern then lies with becoming more aware, and more self-aware, of philosophical assumptions, as well as becoming more consistent in using reason
what is critical thinking applied systematically?
-The more mindful we are, the more we will see that a worldview is comprehensive in scope; Our worldview provides meaning to all our life by supplying answers to the most fundamental questions (how do we know, what is real, what out I to do?) by means of reason
-Allows for a step by step approach to go from more fundamental to less fundamental
-This may be applied systematically to examine all philosophical systems, to test assumptions for logical coherence and consistency by means of reason; not all philosophical systems are equally meaningful when rationally analyzed
How is reason primarily defined?
It is defined as the laws of thought which include:
-The law of identity: A is a
-The law of noncontradiction: Not both a and non-a in the same respect and at the same time
-The law of excluded middle: Either a or non-a
What are the five ways in which reason is used?
1) Formulate thoughts by using concepts, judgments, and arguments
2) Evaluate the meaning of a statement prior to it's true
3) Interpret all our sensory experiences
4) Build a world and life view on the basis of our beliefs
5) Critically analyze the assumptions of philosophical systems
What is the first way reason is used?
Formulate thoughts, which includes the following:
In the first way reason is used, discuss Concepts
In which the mind grasps the essential nature of a thing and expresses it with a word, term, or other symbol. Concepts are evaluated as either having meaning or lacking meaning
In the first way reason is used, discuss Judgments
In which two concepts are joined together by affirmation or separation by negation (is/ is not) Judgments are evaluated
In the first way reason is used, discuss Arguments
In which two (or more) judgments, or premises, are provided to logically support a conclusion. Arguments are evaluated in light of their validity (form) and soundness (form and content)
What is the second way reason is used?
Evaluate the meaning of a statement prior to declaring the truth of a statement. One must understand what the concepts in a judgment mean prior to declaring the judgement true or false
What is the third way reason is used?
Interpret all of our sensory experiences: what we see, hear, smell, taste, touch, and read. Experiences lack meaning without interpretation. Interpretation is in light of our basic beliefs
What is the fourth way reason is used?
Build a world and life view on the basis of our basic beliefs, and test our worldview for coherence in all aspects (epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, values, and attitudes)
What is the fifth way reason is used?
Critically analyze the assumptions of philosophical systems; including worldviews, cultures, and civilizations
What are the four ways that reason is an aspect of human nature?
1) The same in all human beings; it is universal; it is the source of common ground for human communication
2) The laws of thinking and being, and applies to all being
3) The highest source of authority common to all human beings
4) Logically prior to other aspects of human personality such as emotion and will
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