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100 terms

ADJ 100 - Exam 3

The courtroom workgroup includes:
A defense attorney must reveal known cases of ____ according to the Supreme Court case of Nix v. Whiteside.
Client Perjury
Public defenders are:
Appointed by a court administrator
Today's new personal technologies which include cellular telephones with digital cameras threaten courtroom:
What term describes an attorney who worked for a law firm?
Private Attorney
The witness has worked as an auto mechanic for 15 years. He testifies that in his opinion the brakes on the car failed because they had been cut. The auto mechanic is:
an expert witness
A court of last resort has ____ jurisdiction.
How many states have intermediate appellate courts?
A state misdemeanor case is likely to start in:
A trial court of limited jurisdiction
Bob is convicted of theft in a lower court. On appeal, the higher court retires Bob's case.
Bob's appeal is a trial de novo
All of the following are non professionals of the courtroom work group except:
Which U.S. Supreme Court case established the right to counsel for juvenile defendants?
In re Gault
Who is responsible for swearing in witnesses?
Clerk of court
When a trial court of general jurisdiction offers a new trial instead of appellate review of a lower court's decision, it is giving a:
Trial de novo
The dual-court system consists of:
State and federal courts
Thomas Henderson's decisional model describes the lower court process as:
Informal, personal, and decisive
Which of the following is not a responsibility of a bailiff?
Case-flow analysis
Jurisdiction may be thought of as:
Lawful authority
Which of the following federal offices is responsible for administering the federal court system?
Administrative Office of the United States Courts
There are ____ district courts in the federal court system.
Bob consigns all of his stock holdings to the court. What type of bail did he post?
Property bond
U.S. v. Hazzard held that bail can be denied when the accused is:
is a danger to the community
The bail decision is made at what stage of the court process?
Maryland v. Craig upheld the use of ____ to shield children who testify at trial.
A closed circuit television
Which of the following statements about grand juries is false?
Defendants can-cross examine prosecution witnesses during a grand jury hearing.
Bail serves two purposes. One is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial. The other is:
to prevent people who have not been convicted from suffering imprisonment unnecessarily.
Which of the following represents the order of the steps in a criminal trial?
Trial initiation, jury selection, opening statements, presentation of evidence, closing arguments, the judge's charge to the jury, jury deliberations, the verdict.
A preliminary hearing is held to:
Determine if there is probable cause to hold the defendant for trial.
Eyewitness testimony and videotaped documentation are examples of what type of evidence?
Release on recognizance:
Results in the defendant's release based on a guarantee that a defendant provides in writing
When a defendant "stands mute" at her arraignment, she is considered to have entered a:
No-contest plea
What Amendment guarantees the right to an impartial jury?
Which of the following is not a type of juror challenge?
Challenges for knowledge
The federal Speedy Trial Act allows for the dismissal of charges when the prosecution does not seek indictment within _____ days of arrest, or when trial does not begin within 70 days after indictment.
Approximately what percentage of states uses grand juries as part of the pretrial process?
What type of plea is most similar to a guilty plea?
Nolo contendere
Under the 2005 U.S. Supreme Court cases of U.S. v. Booker and U.S. v. Fanfan the Federal sentencing Guidelines can no longer be considered:
By state judges
The 1996 Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act focuses on:
Federal appeals by death row inmates
In 2004 the U.S. Supreme Court case of Blakely v. Washington effectively invalidated any sentencing schema that allow ____ rather than juries to determine any factor that icnreases criminal sentence.
A presumptive sentencing model includes all of the following except:
Vast judicial discretion
The use of court-ordered community service, home detention, day reporting, drug treatment, psychological counseling, victim-offender programming, or intensive supervision in lieu of other more traditional sanctions, such as imprisonment and fines.
Alternative sentencing
About what percentage of federal sentences are the result of guilty please?
What method of execution is used in most states?
Lethal Injection
In 2005 the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Roper v. Simmons held that anyone who committed their crime when younger than 18 could not be sentenced:
To death
Which sentencing goal stressed vengeance?
In regard to sentencing
_____ deterrance seeks to reduce the likelihood of recidivism.
Proportionality demands:
A direct relationship between the severity of the sanctions and the seriousness of the crime.
Which of the following intermediate sanctions exposes offenders to a highly regimented environment involving strict discipline. physical training, and hard labor?
Shock incarceration
Which model, describing the duties of probation and parole officers, see clients as "wards" whom officers are expected to control?
Correctional model
Virtually every person incarcerated in jail and 97% of those incarcerated in prison:
Will eventually be released back into society
Bob is sentenced to probation. The conditions of his probation, and all probationers in this jurisdiction, include maintaining employment, posessing no firearm, obeying all laws, and meeting with his probation officer. These are ____ conditions.
Who makes the release decision when an offender is sentenced to shock parole?
The parole board
Discretionary parole is granted by:
A parole board
Which of the following sentences is not an example of an intermediate sanction?
Simple probation
Which of the following is not a finding from the 1995 study of the operation of shock incarceration programs in eight states?
The impact on recidivism is significant
The release of an inmate from prison that is determined by a statute or sentencing guidelines and is not decided by a parole board or other authority.
Mandatory release
What type of probation might require face-to-face contacts between the officer and the probationer five times a week, a mandatory curfew, having a job, and submitting to weekly alcohol and drug testing?
_____ Incapacitation is a strategy that would imprison almost all serious offenders.
quakers, penance, and the Pennsylvania style of imprisonment are tied to the ____ era.
What type of inmate labor system allows private businesses to pay to use inmate labor?
Contract System
The current era of imprisonment, called the just deserts era, most closely resembles what earlier era?
The punitive era
Jails that are built and run using the combined resources of a variety of local jurisdictions are called:
Regional jails
____ incapacitation seeks to identify the most dangerous criminals.
Which early punishment was primarily a strategy of specific deterrence because it made it difficult for individuals to commit future crimes?
The Auburn system of imprisonment became popular during which prison era?
Mass prison
What court is the first appellate level for courts of limited jurisdiction?
Trial courts of general jurisdiction
The movement of a trial from one location to another is a:
Change of Venue
At least one study suggests that some prosecutors have a tendency to be lenient toward female defendants but discriminate against ____ defendants when deciding whether to prosecute.
The power of a court to review actions and decisions made by other agencies of government is:
The power of judicial review.
The U.S. Supreme Court case of U.S. v. Bagley compels the prosecution to disclose any evidence that the _____ requests.
Courts that have the authority to review a decision made by a lower court are said to have:
Appellate jurisdiction
What do we call laws that limit the right to bail for certain defendants, usually defendants charged with certain crimes?
Danger Laws
What study tested the effectiveness of the release-on-recognizance alternative?
Manhattan Bail Project
Which of the following is not an alternative to bail?
What type of bail is like a credit contract?
Unsecured bonds
What federal legislation allows federal judges to deny bail to persons who are thought to be dangerous?
1984 Federal Bail Reform Act
Which of the following is not one of the goals of contemporary sentencing?
Which of the following is one of the more rational sentencing goals?
What goal of sentencing is sometimes referred to as the "lock 'em up approach"?
Restorative justice focuses on crime as harm, and justice as _____ the harm.
What type of sentence requires that offenders serve weekends in jail and receive probation supervision during the week?
Mixed sentence
According to a Bureau of Justice Statistics study, about what percentage of people convicted of homicide are placed on probation?
Who is recognized as the world's first probation officer?
John Augustus
What era was based on the medical model of corrections?
terms like convict bogey and lock psychosis were popular during what prison era?
punitive era
Federal Prison Industries, responsible for prison labor opportunities in the federal prison system, is also called:
A defendant would be entitled to counsel if she were too poor to afford an attorney in each of the following situations except if:
She were charged with a misdemeanor with a maximum penalty of $100 fine.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a trial court of limited jurisdiction?
Cases can be resolved only by jury trials
Which of the following does not occur at the first appearance?
A defendant has the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses
During a trial, the ____ happens before the closing statement, but after the jury selection.
Opening Statement
Three-strikes laws are representative of:
Mandatory sentencing
Who makes federal parole decisions?
United States Parole Commission
Which of the following is a characteristic of jails?
Hold suspects following arrest and pending trial
Cases begin in courts with ____ jurisdiction.
McNabb v. U.S. formally established that a defendant being held in custody has a right to appear in court before a magistrate:
Without necessary delay.
A sentence of 8 to 25 years is an example of a(n):
Indeterminate Sentence
Revocation of probation or parole:
Requires procedural safeguards including a hearing
ADMAX or Adminstrative maximum is the term used by the federal government to denote:
Ultra-high-security prisons.
States that followed the federal court model have how many tiers?