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Schools Ch. 6
Terms in this set (35)
Approximately what percentage of all American youth continue their education beyond their high school graduation?
Approximately what percentage of young people ages 14 to 17 attended school during the transition from the 19th to 20th centuries?
In comparison to European high school students, American high school students:
have a shorter school year.
During the late 19th century, reformers argued that universal secondary education was a necessary part of the process of Americanization, in order to:
homogenize a population characterized by increasingly uncomfortable ethnic and cultural diversity.
The comprehensive high school was implemented in order to:
allow adolescents to learn skills that would apply well to their chosen career paths.
One of the school reforms of the 1980s encouraged greater emphasis on teaching higher-order thinking, an example of which would be:
the encouragement of interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of information.
After approximately two decades of reforms, American students:
still ranked below the international average in math, and just barely above average in sciences.
According to educational historian Diane Ravitch, several erroneous beliefs interfered with successful educational reform leading up to the turn of the 21st century; beliefs that included all but which of the following?
that a lack of funding was responsible for deficiencies in public education
In response to widespread disappointment over the state of public education in America, increasing numbers of parents explored charter schools, government-subsidized school vouchers, and schools run by private corporations. Research comparing traditional public education to these alternatives suggests:
that such research findings are inconclusive, in that it is probably what takes place within a school that is most important, rather than the nature of funding and oversight.
Social scientists generally agree that the decline of American education has become distressingly urgent within the:
inner-city communities of America.
There is a fair degree of consensus among education experts as to what constitutes a good school. Characteristics of good schools includes all but:
good schools have teachers whose freedom and autonomy are restricted by the school administration.
Which is not a viable explanation for the failure of school reform in urban schools?
the lack of a sufficiently large administrative structure to handle change successfully
Which of the following accurately describes the achievement gap between white and nonwhite youngsters during the 1990s? The achievement gap:
widened, as in New York, where proficient whites outnumber blacks 8 to 1.
Larger high schools, some as large as several thousand students, are able to offer a more diverse selection of extracurricular activities to their students. What is another finding related to size of schools?
a student's chance of being able to participate is greater in a smaller school
Experts agree that the ideal size of a school for adolescents is between:
501 and 1,000 students.
With respect to school transitions, one of the most commonly reported findings is that students':
academic motivation and grades drop moving from elementary to middle school.
In comparison to elementary school teachers, junior high school teachers are more likely to:
emphasize control and discipline.
Which one of the following is not consistent with Eccles' findings on the transition from elementary to middle school?
along with a decline in grades, students' standardized test scores also decline
The educational practice of tracking involves:
grouping students based on ability and delivering instruction accordingly
Research has found that tracking assignments can be influenced by factors other than ability. For example:
even though elementary age girls score higher in math than boys, girls are less likely to be assigned to high ability math classes in middle school.
Which of the following is not a result of being placed in a higher ability track for a particular subject matter?
advanced tracking leads to negative attitudes toward the course itself
What is most characteristic of a student who has been labeled as a gifted student?
they have scored 130 or higher on a test of intelligence (IQ)
The integration of students with special needs or gifted students into regular classrooms is known as:
Which of the following is not a reason that many educators support mainstreaming?
mainstreaming tends to foster stigmatization and isolation
Adolescents with learning disabilities who have been mainstreamed are likely to experience which of the following?
having more difficulty coping with school
Research conducted on the short-term effects of school desegregation on minority students supports all of the following, except:
students who attend schools that use busing practices report stronger feelings of attachment to their school than do students whose schools draw directly from the local neighborhood.
Studies indicate that immediately following the imposition of a desegregation program:
white enrollment in a school declines as white families move or withdraw their children from the public schools.
Strong communities, whether based in neighborhoods or schools, generate what has been called social capital, which refers to:
Which of the following factors has the least influence on students' behavior and achievement?
the size of the individual classes within a school
The most satisfactory school climate is one that combines a moderate degree of structure with high student involvement and high levels of teacher support, which most closely approximates which of the following parenting styles (see Chapter 4)?
Violence is an all-too-prevalent feature of the school climate in the United States, where one in four students has reportedly been a victim of violence in or around school. However, the reality and the perception of school violence may not always be one and the same. Which of the following is inaccurate with respect to school violence in the United States?
more children and adolescents are killed at home or in the community than in or around schools
In studying teacher expectations and school performance, Jussim and Eccles found that there is a stronger association between teacher expectations and student performance for students who are academically:
An example of the phenomenon of self-fulfilling prophecy is:
the more teachers expect from students, the more students are likely to produce.
Aside from the academic agenda, most adolescents view school as a setting for:
Which of the following would not lead to greater student engagement in the classroom, according to Newmann?
the use of a rigid class structure and lecture format
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