311 terms

AP Biology Exam Terms

AP Biology Exam Terms to know for AP Exam
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organic compounds
contain carbon; examples include lipids, proteins, and carbs
functional groups
amino (NH2), carbonyl (RCOR), carboxyl (COOH), hydroxyl (OH), phosphate (PO4), sulfhydryl (SH)
fat
glycerol and three fatty acids
saturated fats
bad for you; animals and some plants have it; solidifies at room temp.
unsaturated fats
better for you, plants have it; liquifies at room temp.
steriods
lipids whose structures resemble chicken-wire fence. include cholesterol and sex hormones
phospholipids
glycerol + 2 fatty acids + 1 phosphate group; makes up membrane bilayers of cells; hydrophobic interiors and hydrophillic exteriors
carbohydrates
used by cells for energy and stucture; monosaccharides (glucose), disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, lactose), storage polysaccharides (starch [plants], glycogen [animals]), structural polysaccharides (chitin [fungi], cellulose [arthropods])
proteins
made with the help of ribosomes out of amino acids; serve many functions (transport, enzymes, cell signals, receptor molecules, structural components, and channels)
enzymes
catalytic proteins that react in an induced-fit fashion with substrates to speed up that rate of reactions by lowering the activation energy
competitve inhibtion
inhibitor resembles substrate and binds to active site
noncompetitive inhibition
inhibitor binds elsewhere on the enzyme; alters active site so that the substrate cannot bind
pH
logarithmic scale; <7 acidic, 7 neutral, >7 basic (alkaline); 4 is 10 times more acidic than 5
hydrolysis
breaks down compounds by adding water
dehydration
two components brought together, producing H2O
endergonic reaction
reaction that requires input of energy
exergonic reaction
reaction that gives off energy
redox
electron transfer reactions
cell wall
found in prokaryotes and plant cells eukaryotes; protects and shapes the cell
plasma membrane
found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; regulates what substances enter and leave a cell
ribosome
found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; host for protein synthesis; form in nucleolus
smooth ER
found in eukaryotes; lipid synthesis, detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism; contains no ribosomes on cytoplasmic surface
rough ER
found in eukaryotes; synthesizes proteins to secrete or send to plasma membrane; contains ribosomes on cytoplasmic surface
Golgi
found in eukaryotes; modifies lipids, proteins to secrete or send to plasma membrane; contains ribosomes on cytoplasmic surface
mitochondria
found in eukaryotes; power plant of cell; hosts major energy-producing steps of respiration
lysosome
found in eukaryotes; contains enzymes that digest organic compounds; serves as cell's stomach
nucleus
found in eukaryotes; control center of cell; host for transcription, replication, and DNA
peroxisome
found in eukaryotes; breakdown of fatty acids, detoxification of alcohol
chloroplast
found in plant cells eukaryotes; site of photosynthesis in plants
cytoskeleton
found in eukaryotes; skeleton of cell; consists of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
vacuole
large in plant cells and small in animal cells; storage vaults of cells
centrioles
found in animal cells eukaryote; part of microtubule separation apparatus that assits cell division in animal cells
fluid mosaic model
plasma membrane is selectively permeable phosolipid bilayer with proteins of various lengths and sizes interspersed with cholesterol amoung the phospholipids
integral proteins
proteins implanted within lipid bilayer of plasma membrane
diffusion
passive movement of substances down their concentration gradient (from high to low concentrations)
osmosis
passive movement of water from the side of low solute concentration to the side of high solute concentration
facilitated diffusion
assisted transport of particles across membrane (no energy input)
active transport
movement of substances against concentration gradient (low to high concentrations; requires energy input)
endocytosis
phagocytosis of particles into cell through the use of vesicles
exocytosis
process by which particles are ejected from the cell, similar to movement in a trash chute
aerobic respiration
glycolysis -> krebs cycle -> oxidative phosphorylation -> 36 ATP per glucose molecule
anaerobic respiration (fermentation)
glycolysis -> regenerate NAD+ -> 2 ATP per glucose molecule
glycolysis
conversion of 1 glucose molecule into 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 NADH; occurs in the cytoplasma, and in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration; must have NAD+ to proceed
Krebs cycle
conversion 1 pyruvate molecule into 4 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP, H2O, and CO2; occurs twice for each glucose to yeild double the products above; occurs in the mitochondria
oxidative phosphorylation
production of large amounts of ATP from NADH and FADH2; occurs in the mitochrondria; requires the presence of oxygen to proceed
chemiosmosis
coupling of the movement of electrons down the ETC with the formation of ATP using the driving force provided by the proton gradient; occurs in both cell respiration and photosynthesis to produce ATP
ATP synthase
enzyme responsible for using protons to actually produce ATP from ADP
fermentation
process that regenerates NAD+ so glycolsis can begin again; occurs in absence of oxygen
alcohol fermentation
occurs in fungi, yeast, and bacteria; causes conversion of pyruvate to ethanol
lactic acid fermentation
occurs in humans and animal muscles; causes conversion of pyruvate -> lactate; causes cramping sensation when oxygen runs low in muscles
photosynthesis
process by which plants use the energy from light to generate sugar; occurs in chloroplasts; light reactions (thylakoid), and Calvin cycle (stroma)
autotroph
self-nourishing organism that is also known as a producer (plants)
heterotrophs
organisms that must consume other organisms to obtain energy--consmers
transpiration
loss of water via evaporation through the stomata
photophosphorylation
process by which ATP is made during light reactions
photolysis
process by which water is split into hydrogen ions and oxygen atoms (light reactions)
stomata
structure through which CO2 enters a plant, and water vapor and oxygen leave plant
pigment
molcule that absorbs light of a particular wavelength (chlorophyll, carotenoid, phycobilins)
C4 plants
plants that have adapted their photosynthetic process to more efficiently handle hot and dry conditions
C4 photosynthesis
process that first converts CO2 into a 4-carbon molcule in the mesophyll cells, converts that product to malate and then shuttles it to the bundle sheath cells, where the malate releases CO2 and rubisco picks it up as if all were normal
CAM plants
plants close their stomata during the day, collect CO2 at night, and store the CO2 in the form of acids until it is needed during the day for photosynthesis
binary fission
prokaryotic cell division; double the DNA, double the size, then split apart
cell cycle
growth 1 -> synthesis -> growth 2 -> mitosis
cytokinesis
physical separation of newly formed daughter cells of cell division
cell division control mechanisms
growth factors, checkpoints, density-dependent inhibition, and cyclins and protein kinases
growth factors
factors then when present, promote growth, and when absent, impede growth
checkpoints
a cell stops growing to make sure it has the nutrients and raw materials to proceed
density-dependent inhibition
cell stops growing when certain density is reached
cyclins and protein kinases
cyclin combines with CDK to form a structure known as MPF that pushes cell into mitosis when enough is present
haploid (n)
one copy of each chromosome
diploid (2n)
two copies of each chromosome
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that are similar in shape, size, and function
spermatogenesis
the process of male gamete formation (four sperm from one cell)
oogenesis
the process of female gamete formation (one ovum from each cell)
life cycles
sequences of events that make up the reproductive cycle of an organism
human life cycle
zygote (2n) -> multicellular orgainsm (2n) -> gametes (n) -> zygote (2n)
fungi life cycle
zygote (2n) -> multicellular orgainsm (n) -> gametes (n) -> zygote (2n)
plants life cycle
zygote (2n) -> sporophyte (2n) -> spores (n) -> gametophyte (n) -> gametes (n) -> zygote (2n)
source of variation
crossover, 2^n possible gametes that can be formed, random pairing of gametes
character
heritable feature, such as flower color
monohybrid cross
cross involving one character (3:1 phenotype ratio)
dihybrid cross
cross involving two different characters (9:3:3:1 phenotype ratio)
law of segregation
the two alleles for a trait separate during the formation of gametes--one to each gamete
law of indendent assortment
inheritance of one trait does not interfere with the inheritance of another trait
law of dominance
if two opposite pure-breeding varieties are crossed, all offspring resemble dominant parent
intermediate inheritance
heterozygous individual shows characterstics unlike either parent
incomplete dominance
Yy produces a intermediate phenotype between YY and yy
codominace
both alleles express themselves fully in a Yy individual
polygenetic traits
traits that are affected by more then one gene (eye color or skin color)
multiple alleles
traits that correspond to more than two alleles
epistasis
a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at another locus
pleiotropy
a single gene has multiple effects on an organism
sex determination
males are XY, females are XX
autosomal chromosome
chromosome not involved in gender
sex-linked traits
passed along the X chromosome; more common in males then females
X inactivation
one of two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated and remains coiled as a Barr body
holandric trait
trait that is inherited via the Y chromosome
linked genes
genes that lie along the same chromsome and do not follow the law of independent assortment
crossover
a form of genetic recombination that occurs during prophase I of meiosis
linkage map
genetic map put together using crossover frequencies
pedigree
family tree used to describe genetic relationships
autosomal recessive disorders
Tay-Sachs, Cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, phenylketonuria
autosomal dominant disorders
Huntington disease and achondroplasia
nondisjunction
error in which homologous chromosomes do not separate properly
chromosomal disorders
deletion, inversions, duplications, and translocations
DNA
contains A, G, C, and T; arranged in double helix of two strands held together by hydrogen bonds
RNA
contains A, G, C, and U; singled stranded
mRNA
blueprints for proteins
tRNA
brings acids to ribosomes
rRNA
make of ribosomes
DNA replication
occurs in S-phase, semiconservative, built in 5' to 3' direction
frameshift mutation
deletion or addition of nucleotides; shifts reading frame
missense mutation
subsitution of wrong nucleotide into DNA; still produces a protein
nonsense mutation
subsitution of wrong nucleotide into DNA that produces an early stop codon
transcription
process by which mRNA is synthesized on a DNA template
RNA processing
introns (noncoding) are spliced out, exon (coding) glued together
translation
process by which the mRNA specified sequence of amino acids is lined up on a ribosome for protein synthesis
codon
triplet of nucleotides that codes for a particular amino acid
promoter
base sequence that signals start site for transcription
repressor
protein that prevents the binding of RNA polymerase to promoter site
inducer
molecule that binds to and inactivates a repressor
operator
short sequence near the promoter that assists in transcription by interacting with transcription factors
operon
on/off switch for transcription, allows for production of genes only when needed
viruses
parastic infectious agent unable to survive outside the host; can obtain DNA or RNA, or have a viral envelope
lytic cycle
one in which the virus is actively reproducing and kills the host cell
lysogenic cycle
one in which the virus lie dormant within the DNA of the host cell
retrovirus
RNA virus that carries with it reverse transcriptase (HIV)
prion
virus that converts host brain proteins into misshapen proteins
viroids
tiny plant viruses
phage
virus that infects bacteria
bacteria
prokaryotic cell consists of one double strand circular DNA molecule; reproduce by binary fission
transformation
uptake of foreign DNA from the surrounding environment
transduction
movement of genes from one cell to another by phages, which incorporated by crossover
generalized transduction
lytic cycle accidently places host DNA into a phage, which is brought to another cell
specialized transduction
virus leaving lysogenic cycle brings host DNA with it into phage
conjugation
transfer of DNA between two bacterial cell connected by sex pili
restriction enzymes
enzymes that cut DNA at a paticular sequences, creating sticky ends
vector
mover of DNA from one source to another
cloning
somewhat slow process by which a desired sequence of DNA is copied numerous times
gel electrophoresis
technique used to separate DNA according to size. DNA moves from - to +
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
produces large quanties of sequence in short amount of time
modes of evolution
genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, natural selection
genetic drift
change in allele frequencies because of chance events
gene flow
change in allele frequencies as genes move from one population to another
mutation
change in allele frequencies due to random genetic change in an allele
natural selection
process by which characters or traits maintained or eliminated in a population based on their contribution to the differential survival and reproductive succes of their "host" organism
variation
differences must exist between individuals
hertiability
the traits to be selected for must be able to be passed along to offspring
differential reproductive success
there must be variation amoung parents in how many offspring they produce as a result of the different traits that the parent have
adaption
a trait that, if altered, affects the fitness of an organism
selection types
directional, stabilizing, disruptive, sexual, and artifical
directional selection
members at one end of a spectrum are selected against, and the population shifts toward that end
stabilizing selection
selection for the mean of the population; reduces variation of a population
disruptive selection
selects for the two extremes of the population; selects against the middle
sexual selection
certain characters are selected for because they aid in mate acquisition
artifical selection
human intervention in the form of selective breeding
mutation
random changes in DNA can introduce new alleles into a population
balanced polymorphism
the maintainance of two or more phenotypic variants
allopatric speciation
interbreeding stops because some physical barrier splits the population into two
sympatric speciation
interbreeding stops even though no physical barrier prevents it
polyploidy
condition in which individual has higher than normal number of chromosomes sets
balanced polymorphism
two phenotypic variants become so different that the two groups stop interbreeding
adaptive radiation
rapid series of speciation events that occur when one or more ancestral species invades a new environment
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
p + q = 1, p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1; evolution is not occuring; the rules for this are no mutations, no gene flow, no genetic drift, no natural selection, and random mating
homologous character
traits similar between organisms that arose from a common ancestor
vestigil character
character contained by organism that is no longer functionally useful
gradualism
evolutionary change is slow and steady process
punctuated equilibria
evolutionary change occurs in rapid bursts separated by large periods of no change
hetertroph theory
theory that describes how life evolved from original heterotrophs
convergent character
traits similar to two or more organisms that do not share common ancestor; parallel evolution
convergent evolution
two unrelated species evolve in a way that makes them more similar
divergent evolution
two related spevies evolve in a way that makes them less similar
taxonomy
classification of organisms based upon the presence or absence of shared characterstics: kingdom -> phylum -> class -> order -> family -> genus -> species
five kingdom system
monera -> Protista -> plantae -> Fungi -> animalia
six kingdom system
Archaebacteria -> Eubacteria -> Protista -> Planae -> Fungi -> Animalia
endosymbiotic theory
eukaryotes originated from symbiotic partnership of prokaryotic cells
anatomy of plants
tissue systems are divided into ground, vascular, and dermal
ground tissue
the body of the plants is divided into collenchyma cells, parenchyma cells, and sclerenchyma cells
collenchyma cells
provide flexible and mechanical support; found in stems and leaves
parenchyma cells
play a role in storage, secrection, and photosynthesis in cells
sclerenchyma cells
protects seeds and support the plants
vascular tissue
xylem and phloem
xylem
transports water and minerals in plants
phloem
transports sugar in plants
dermal tissue
protective outer coating for plants: epidermis
types of roots
taproot system and fibrous root system
taproot system
dicots; system that divides into lateral roots that anchor the plant
fibrous root system
anchoring systsem that does not go deep down into the soil
primary growth
increased length of plants (occurs in region of apical meristem)
secondary growth
increased width of plant (occurs in region of lateral meristems)
vascular cambium
gives rise to secondary xylem/phloem; runs entire length of plant
cork cambium
produces protective covering that replaces epidermis during secondary growth
plant hormones
abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins
abscisic acid
inhibits cell growth, helps close stomata
auxin
stem elongation, gravitrophism, phototropism
cytokinins
promote cell division, leaf enlargement, slow aging of leaves
ethylene
ripens fruit and causes leaves to fall
gibberellins
stem elongation, induce growth in dormant seeds, buds, flowers
plant trophisms
gravitropism, phototrophism, thigmotropism
gravitropism
a plant's growth in response to gravity
phototropism
plant's growth in response to light
thigmotropism
plant's growth in response to touch
photoperiodism
response of a plant to the change in length of days
circulatory system
bloodflow= left side of heart -> aorta -> via arteries to organs and muscles -> into vena cava -> right side of heart -> lungs -> left side of heart
respiratory pathway
nose/mouth -> pharynx -> larynyx -> trachea -> bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveoli
digestive system
digestion begins in mouth, continues in the stomach, and completes in the intestine
amylase
enzyme that breaks down starches in the diet
pepsin
main digestive enzyme of the stomach that breaks down proteins
lipase
major fat digesting enzyme of the body
trypsin and chymotrypsin
major protein digesting endopeptidases of the small intestine
bile salts
major emulsifer of fat
maltase, lactase, and sucrase
carbohydrate digesting enzymes of the small intestines
small intestine
most of the digestion and absorption of food occurs in the _________
large intestine
reabsorbs water and packs the indigestible food into feces
excretory system
kidneys -> minor and major calyces -> renal pelvis -> bladder via the ureter -> out of the body via the urethra
nephron
functional part of the kidney
excretory system hormones
ADH and aldosterone
ADH
controls water absorption in the excretory system
aldosterone
controls sodium reabsorption in the excretory system
anterior pituitary hormones
FSH, LH, TSH, STH, ACTH, and prolactin
FSH
stimulates production of eggs or sperm
LH
stimulates ovulation, increases estrogen/progesterone release
TSH
increases release of thyroid hormone
STH
increases growth
ACTH
increases secrection of adrenal cortical hormones
prolactin
controls lactogenesis, decreases secretion of GnRH
pancreatic hormones
insulin and glucagon
insulin
increases glycogen formation
glucagon
increases glycogen breakdown
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
increases blood Ca2+ involved in bone maintenance
posterior pituitary hormones
ADH and oxytocin
oxytocin
stimulates uterine contraction and milk ejection
adrenal gland hormones
aldosterone and cortisol
aldosterone
regulates blood sodium concentration
cortisol
chronic stress hormone
sex hormones
progestrone, estrogen, and testosterone
progestrone
involved in menstrual cycle and pregnancy
estrogen
made in ovaries; increases release of LH; develops female secondary sex characteristics
testosterone
stimulates sperm production; develops male secondary sex characterstics
negative feedback
hormone acts to directly, or indirectly, inhibit further release of the hormone of interest
positive feedback
horomone acts directly, or indirectly, cause increased secretion of the hormone
SNS
controls skeletal muscles and voluntary actions
ANS
controls involuntary activities of body
cerebellum
controls coordination and balance
medulla
controls involuntary actions such as breathing
hypothalamus
regulates hunger, thirst, and temperature
amygdala
emotion control center
nonspecific immunity
nonspecific prevention of enterance of invaders into the body
specific immunity
multilayered defense mechanism-- first line of defense: phagocyctes, macrophages, neutrophils, complement; second line of defense: B cells and T cells
primary immune response (humoral immunity)
antigen invader -> B cell meets antigen -> B cell differentiates into the plasma cells and memory cells -> plamsa cells produce anitbodies -> antibodies eliminate antigen
secondary immune response
antigen invader -> memory cells recogize antigen and pump out antibodies much quicker than primary response -> antibodies eliminate antigen
cell-mediated immunity
involves T cells and direct cellular response to an invasion. defense against viruses
primary sex characteristics
sexual organs that assist in reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
physical characteristics that differ men and women
FSH
stimulate oogenesis in females and spermatogenesis in males; creates follicle that surrounds the primary oocyte during development
LH
stimulates the ovulation and production of estrogen and progesterone in females; stimulates production of testosterone and sperm in males
GnRH
causes pituitary to release LH and FSH
behavioral ecology
the study of interaction between animals and their environment
ethology
study of animal behavior
fixed action pattern
preprogrammed response to a stimulus
habituation
loss of responsiveness to unimportant stimuli or stimuli that provide no feedback
imprinting
innate behavior learned during critical period early in life
associative learning
one stimulus is associated with another (classical conditioning)
operant conditioning
trial-and-error learning
insight learning
ability to reason through a problem the first time through with no prior experience
observational learning
learning by watching someone else do it first
kinesis
change in the speed of movement in response to a stimulus; organisms will move faster in bad environments and slower in good environments
migration
cyclic movement of animals over long distances according to the time of year
taxis
reflex movement toward or away from a stimulus
agnostic behavior
conflict behavior over access to a resource; often a matter of which aniaml can mount the most threatening display and scare the other into submission
dominance hierarchies
ranking of power amoung the members of a group; subject to change
territoriality
defense of territory to keep others out
altruistic behavior
action in which an organism helps another at its own expense
reciprocal altruism
animals behave altruistically toward others who are not relatives
foraging
feeding behavior of an individual
optimal foraging
natural selection favors those who choose foraging strategies that maximize the differential betwen cost and benefits
inclusive fitness
the ability of individuals to pass their genes not only through the production of their offspring, but also by providing aid to enable closely related individuals to produce offspring
chemical communication
communication through the use of chemical signals, such as pheramones
visual communication
communication through the visual cues, such as the tail feather displays of peacocks
audiotory communication
communication through the use of sound, such as the chirping of frogs in the summer
tactile communciation
communication through the use of touch, such as a handshake
population
collection of individuals of the same species living in the same geographic region
community
collection of populations of species in a geographic area
ecosystem
community and its environment
biosphere
communities and the ecosystems of the planet
biotic components
living organisms of ecosystem
abiotic components
nonliving players in an ecosystem
biotic potential
maximum growth rate for a population
carrying capcity
maximum number of individuals that a population can sustain in a given environment
limiting factors
factors that keep population size in check
parasitism
one organism benefits at another's expense
commensalism
one organism benefits while the other is unaffected
mutualism
both organisms reap benefits from the interaction
competition
both species are harmed by the interaction
predation
one species, the predator, hunts the other, the prey
cryptic coloration
colring scheme that allows organism to blend into colors of environment
deceptive markings
patterns that cause an animal to appear larger or more dangerous than it really is
aposematic coloration
warning coloration adopted by animals that posses a chemical defense mechanism
Batesian mimicry
animal that is harmless copies the apperance of an animal that is dangerous
Mullerian mimicry
two aposemetrically colored species have similar coloration pattern
primary succession
occurs in area devoid of life that contains no soil
secondary succession
occurs in area that once had stable life but was disturbed by major force fire
desert
driest land biome
taiga
lengthy cold, wet winters; lots of conifers
temperate grasslands
most fertile soil of all biomes
tundra
permafrost, cold winters, short shrubs
savanna
grasslands, home to herbivores
deciduous forest
cold winters and warm summers
tropical forest
great diversity of species in biomes
water biomes
freshwater and marine biomes
trophic levels
hierarchy of energy levels on a planet