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Adrenal Cortex hormones
hormones necessary for life: Androgens (sex), Aldosterone (Na, K, and Water balance), Cortisol (CNS Diurnal Cycle; sleep cycle)
Effects of HYPERrpituitarism
Too much growth hormone, over productive thyroid gland, over productive sex hormones
Target glands of the Pituitray Disorders?
Thyroid, tests/ovaries, growth hormones (MUSCULOSKELETAL system) and Adrenal glands
What are the 4 actions of the thyroid hormone?
hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
Islets of Langerhans
Endocrine cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin(GH), Catecholamines, Glucocorticoids
hormone of the pancreas (delta cells) that balances/regulates by: INHIBITS the release of Somatostatin (growth hormone) and insulin
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Immune mediated DM (autoimmune disorder) BETA cells are destroyed= Lack of INSULIN.......Ketosis (excess,free fatty acids from too much broken down protein)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin Resistance...Genetic, Most common DM....results in a relative INSULIN DEFICIENCY.....= Increased GLUCOSE
Counter Regulatory mechanism for HYPOglycmia: insulin induced hypoglycemia creates HYPERglycemia
counter regulatory mechanism for HYPOglycemia Abnormal circadian rhythm - early AM HYPERglycemia
What are the 2 Anti-Insulin Effects of SOMATOTROPiN
Facilitates Protein and Free Fatty Acid Synthesis........and Maintains Glucose Levels
ACQUiRED version of HYPOthyroidism....Causes Myxedema.........diagnosed w/ blood test......treated w/ supplements of synthetic thyroid hormone
5 Signs/symptoms of Myxedema caused by Hashimoto's
Fatigue, brittle, cold, slow blood so fast heartbeat, constipation
HYPERthyroidism.......ass. with Graves Disease....if untreated=Thyroid Storm-life threatening, Very HIGH Heartrate, die of Cardiac Crisis
Maintained by HPA system.....CNS Diurnal Cycles (sleep cycle).....Metabolic effects of cortisol
Actions of Cortisol
Inflam/Immune Systems SUPPRESSED....Plasma Proteins are INCREASED
4 Effects of Increased Catabolism caused by cortisol?
Muscle breakdown, more FFA, Blood GLUCOSE increased, SNS response increased
PRIMARY Adrenal Cortical Deficiency.......Autoimmune, destroy your adrenal cortex=less AC hormones=more ACTH (neg fdbk sys).....Takes 90% destruction to show symptoms
Na&Water loss = K+ retention, Lack of Glucocorticoids so poor immune response, increased melanin, potential Fatal Dysarrythmia
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