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49 terms

Patho: Endocrine System

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Adrenal medulla hormones
epinephrine/norepinephrine
Adrenal Cortex hormones
hormones necessary for life: Androgens (sex), Aldosterone (Na, K, and Water balance), Cortisol (CNS Diurnal Cycle; sleep cycle)
Effects of HYPERrpituitarism
Too much growth hormone, over productive thyroid gland, over productive sex hormones
HYPOpituitarism
usually slow/progressive, ACTH most serious deficit
Target glands of the Pituitray Disorders?
Thyroid, tests/ovaries, growth hormones (MUSCULOSKELETAL system) and Adrenal glands
FSH and LH hormones do what?
stimulate gonads
TSH hormone does what?
stimulates Thyroid
ACTH Hormone does what?
Stimulates Adrenal Cortex
what part of the brain controls GROWTH HORMONE release?
Hypothalamus
What causes Acromegly?
Tumor in PITUITARY (acquired)
What are the 4 actions of the thyroid hormone?
Metabolic rate
Heart function
Stomach/intestine function
Neuromuscular effects
Primary HYPOthyroidism
High TSH, Low T3 T4........Damages the THYROID
Secondary HYPOthyroidism
Low TSH, Low T3 T4.......Damages the PITUITARY
Myxedema
hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
Exophthalmos
protrusion of the eyeball from the socket (in Graves disease)
Androgens
Adrenal sex hormones
Aldosterone
Mineralocorticoid that retains water, balances Na, K, Water
Acini
Specialized cells in the pancreas that secrete pancreatic juice (effected by diabetes)
Islets of Langerhans
Endocrine cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin(GH), Catecholamines, Glucocorticoids
Alpha Cells
Cells in pancreas that make Glucagon (used to make glucose)
Beta Cells
Cells of the pancreas that make insulin (carries glucose into cells) and also Amylin
Somatostatin
hormone of the pancreas (delta cells) that balances/regulates by: INHIBITS the release of Somatostatin (growth hormone) and insulin
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Immune mediated DM (autoimmune disorder) BETA cells are destroyed= Lack of INSULIN.......Ketosis (excess,free fatty acids from too much broken down protein)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin Resistance...Genetic, Most common DM....results in a relative INSULIN DEFICIENCY.....= Increased GLUCOSE
Somogyi effect:
Counter Regulatory mechanism for HYPOglycmia: insulin induced hypoglycemia creates HYPERglycemia
Dawn phenomenon:
counter regulatory mechanism for HYPOglycemia Abnormal circadian rhythm - early AM HYPERglycemia
What stimulates Growth Hormone secretion?
lack of glucose (hypoglycemia), stress, starvation
What INHIBITS Growth Hormone Secretion?
Cortisol, obesity, high glucose, Free Fatty Acid release
Somatotropin
Growth Hormone
What are the 2 Anti-Insulin Effects of SOMATOTROPiN
Facilitates Protein and Free Fatty Acid Synthesis........and Maintains Glucose Levels
Which T is stored?
T4.....converts to T3 when needed
Which TC is active?
T3
Primary HYPERthyroidism
Low TSH High T3 T4
Goiters
Tumors that increase or decrease THYROID functioning
Hashimoto's
ACQUiRED version of HYPOthyroidism....Causes Myxedema.........diagnosed w/ blood test......treated w/ supplements of synthetic thyroid hormone
5 Signs/symptoms of Myxedema caused by Hashimoto's
Fatigue, brittle, cold, slow blood so fast heartbeat, constipation
Cause of Myxedema Coma?
Tissue swelling and extreme slowing down of circulatory system causing coma
ThyroToxicosis
HYPERthyroidism.......ass. with Graves Disease....if untreated=Thyroid Storm-life threatening, Very HIGH Heartrate, die of Cardiac Crisis
Androgens
Adrenal Sex Hormones
Glucocorticoids/Cortisol
Maintained by HPA system.....CNS Diurnal Cycles (sleep cycle).....Metabolic effects of cortisol
Actions of Cortisol
Increase Catabolism......
Inflam/Immune Systems SUPPRESSED....Plasma Proteins are INCREASED
4 Effects of Increased Catabolism caused by cortisol?
Muscle breakdown, more FFA, Blood GLUCOSE increased, SNS response increased
Addison's Disorder
PRIMARY Adrenal Cortical Deficiency.......Autoimmune, destroy your adrenal cortex=less AC hormones=more ACTH (neg fdbk sys).....Takes 90% destruction to show symptoms
Addison Symptoms/Signs
Na&Water loss = K+ retention, Lack of Glucocorticoids so poor immune response, increased melanin, potential Fatal Dysarrythmia
SECONDARY Adrenal Cortex Deficiency
HYPOpituitarism: Abrupt Withdrawal of GLUCOCORTICOID
Cushing's
Glucocorticoid EXCESS= excess hair and fatty tissue breakdown, frail skin
INSULIN
HELPS GLUCOSE MOVE INTO A CELL
GLUCAGON
RELEASES GLUCOSE FROM LIVER
Hyperlipidemia
Blindness (CHRONIC complication of Diabetes)