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Patho: Endocrine System
Adrenal medulla hormones
Adrenal Cortex hormones
hormones necessary for life: Androgens (sex), Aldosterone (Na, K, and Water balance), Cortisol (CNS Diurnal Cycle; sleep cycle)
Effects of HYPERrpituitarism
Too much growth hormone, over productive thyroid gland, over productive sex hormones
usually slow/progressive, ACTH most serious deficit
Target glands of the Pituitray Disorders?
Thyroid, tests/ovaries, growth hormones (MUSCULOSKELETAL system) and Adrenal glands
FSH and LH hormones do what?
TSH hormone does what?
ACTH Hormone does what?
Stimulates Adrenal Cortex
what part of the brain controls GROWTH HORMONE release?
What causes Acromegly?
Tumor in PITUITARY (acquired)
What are the 4 actions of the thyroid hormone?
High TSH, Low T3 T4........Damages the THYROID
Low TSH, Low T3 T4.......Damages the PITUITARY
hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
protrusion of the eyeball from the socket (in Graves disease)
Adrenal sex hormones
Mineralocorticoid that retains water, balances Na, K, Water
Specialized cells in the pancreas that secrete pancreatic juice (effected by diabetes)
Islets of Langerhans
Endocrine cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin(GH), Catecholamines, Glucocorticoids
Cells in pancreas that make Glucagon (used to make glucose)
Cells of the pancreas that make insulin (carries glucose into cells) and also Amylin
hormone of the pancreas (delta cells) that balances/regulates by: INHIBITS the release of Somatostatin (growth hormone) and insulin
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Immune mediated DM (autoimmune disorder) BETA cells are destroyed= Lack of INSULIN.......Ketosis (excess,free fatty acids from too much broken down protein)
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin Resistance...Genetic, Most common DM....results in a relative INSULIN DEFICIENCY.....= Increased GLUCOSE
Counter Regulatory mechanism for HYPOglycmia: insulin induced hypoglycemia creates HYPERglycemia
counter regulatory mechanism for HYPOglycemia Abnormal circadian rhythm - early AM HYPERglycemia
What stimulates Growth Hormone secretion?
lack of glucose (hypoglycemia), stress, starvation
What INHIBITS Growth Hormone Secretion?
Cortisol, obesity, high glucose, Free Fatty Acid release
What are the 2 Anti-Insulin Effects of SOMATOTROPiN
Facilitates Protein and Free Fatty Acid Synthesis........and Maintains Glucose Levels
Which T is stored?
T4.....converts to T3 when needed
Which TC is active?
Low TSH High T3 T4
Tumors that increase or decrease THYROID functioning
ACQUiRED version of HYPOthyroidism....Causes Myxedema.........diagnosed w/ blood test......treated w/ supplements of synthetic thyroid hormone
5 Signs/symptoms of Myxedema caused by Hashimoto's
Fatigue, brittle, cold, slow blood so fast heartbeat, constipation
Cause of Myxedema Coma?
Tissue swelling and extreme slowing down of circulatory system causing coma
HYPERthyroidism.......ass. with Graves Disease....if untreated=Thyroid Storm-life threatening, Very HIGH Heartrate, die of Cardiac Crisis
Adrenal Sex Hormones
Maintained by HPA system.....CNS Diurnal Cycles (sleep cycle).....Metabolic effects of cortisol
Actions of Cortisol
Inflam/Immune Systems SUPPRESSED....Plasma Proteins are INCREASED
4 Effects of Increased Catabolism caused by cortisol?
Muscle breakdown, more FFA, Blood GLUCOSE increased, SNS response increased
PRIMARY Adrenal Cortical Deficiency.......Autoimmune, destroy your adrenal cortex=less AC hormones=more ACTH (neg fdbk sys).....Takes 90% destruction to show symptoms
Na&Water loss = K+ retention, Lack of Glucocorticoids so poor immune response, increased melanin, potential Fatal Dysarrythmia
SECONDARY Adrenal Cortex Deficiency
HYPOpituitarism: Abrupt Withdrawal of GLUCOCORTICOID
Glucocorticoid EXCESS= excess hair and fatty tissue breakdown, frail skin
HELPS GLUCOSE MOVE INTO A CELL
RELEASES GLUCOSE FROM LIVER
Blindness (CHRONIC complication of Diabetes)