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Adrenal medulla hormones


Adrenal Cortex hormones

hormones necessary for life: Androgens (sex), Aldosterone (Na, K, and Water balance), Cortisol (CNS Diurnal Cycle; sleep cycle)

Effects of HYPERrpituitarism

Too much growth hormone, over productive thyroid gland, over productive sex hormones


usually slow/progressive, ACTH most serious deficit

Target glands of the Pituitray Disorders?

Thyroid, tests/ovaries, growth hormones (MUSCULOSKELETAL system) and Adrenal glands

FSH and LH hormones do what?

stimulate gonads

TSH hormone does what?

stimulates Thyroid

ACTH Hormone does what?

Stimulates Adrenal Cortex

what part of the brain controls GROWTH HORMONE release?


What causes Acromegly?

Tumor in PITUITARY (acquired)

What are the 4 actions of the thyroid hormone?

Metabolic rate
Heart function
Stomach/intestine function
Neuromuscular effects

Primary HYPOthyroidism

High TSH, Low T3 T4........Damages the THYROID

Secondary HYPOthyroidism

Low TSH, Low T3 T4.......Damages the PITUITARY


hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration


protrusion of the eyeball from the socket (in Graves disease)


Adrenal sex hormones


Mineralocorticoid that retains water, balances Na, K, Water


Specialized cells in the pancreas that secrete pancreatic juice (effected by diabetes)

Islets of Langerhans

Endocrine cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin(GH), Catecholamines, Glucocorticoids

Alpha Cells

Cells in pancreas that make Glucagon (used to make glucose)

Beta Cells

Cells of the pancreas that make insulin (carries glucose into cells) and also Amylin


hormone of the pancreas (delta cells) that balances/regulates by: INHIBITS the release of Somatostatin (growth hormone) and insulin

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Immune mediated DM (autoimmune disorder) BETA cells are destroyed= Lack of INSULIN.......Ketosis (excess,free fatty acids from too much broken down protein)

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin Resistance...Genetic, Most common DM....results in a relative INSULIN DEFICIENCY.....= Increased GLUCOSE

Somogyi effect:

Counter Regulatory mechanism for HYPOglycmia: insulin induced hypoglycemia creates HYPERglycemia

Dawn phenomenon:

counter regulatory mechanism for HYPOglycemia Abnormal circadian rhythm - early AM HYPERglycemia

What stimulates Growth Hormone secretion?

lack of glucose (hypoglycemia), stress, starvation

What INHIBITS Growth Hormone Secretion?

Cortisol, obesity, high glucose, Free Fatty Acid release


Growth Hormone

What are the 2 Anti-Insulin Effects of SOMATOTROPiN

Facilitates Protein and Free Fatty Acid Synthesis........and Maintains Glucose Levels

Which T is stored?

T4.....converts to T3 when needed

Which TC is active?


Primary HYPERthyroidism

Low TSH High T3 T4


Tumors that increase or decrease THYROID functioning


ACQUiRED version of HYPOthyroidism....Causes Myxedema.........diagnosed w/ blood test......treated w/ supplements of synthetic thyroid hormone

5 Signs/symptoms of Myxedema caused by Hashimoto's

Fatigue, brittle, cold, slow blood so fast heartbeat, constipation

Cause of Myxedema Coma?

Tissue swelling and extreme slowing down of circulatory system causing coma


HYPERthyroidism.......ass. with Graves Disease....if untreated=Thyroid Storm-life threatening, Very HIGH Heartrate, die of Cardiac Crisis


Adrenal Sex Hormones


Maintained by HPA system.....CNS Diurnal Cycles (sleep cycle).....Metabolic effects of cortisol

Actions of Cortisol

Increase Catabolism......
Inflam/Immune Systems SUPPRESSED....Plasma Proteins are INCREASED

4 Effects of Increased Catabolism caused by cortisol?

Muscle breakdown, more FFA, Blood GLUCOSE increased, SNS response increased

Addison's Disorder

PRIMARY Adrenal Cortical Deficiency.......Autoimmune, destroy your adrenal cortex=less AC hormones=more ACTH (neg fdbk sys).....Takes 90% destruction to show symptoms

Addison Symptoms/Signs

Na&Water loss = K+ retention, Lack of Glucocorticoids so poor immune response, increased melanin, potential Fatal Dysarrythmia

SECONDARY Adrenal Cortex Deficiency

HYPOpituitarism: Abrupt Withdrawal of GLUCOCORTICOID


Glucocorticoid EXCESS= excess hair and fatty tissue breakdown, frail skin






Blindness (CHRONIC complication of Diabetes)

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