Definitions and important stuff to know for module 16 (entitled 'An Introduction to Astrophysics') of the first edition of Apologia's 'Exploring Creation with Physical Science', by Dr. Jay Wile.
When studying any of my sets, it may be helpful to ignore stuff in parentheses. I have annotated a few extra things, and you don't necessarily need to know my notes to ace the test.
What are the four layers of the sun, from inside to outside?
Between the parallax method and apparent magnitude method, which has the most accuracy? And which can be used to measure long distances?
The parallax method is more accurate (because it is purely based on math). The apparent magnitude method can be used to measure long distances (though it just makes assumptions and is not as accurate as the parallax method).
the distance light travels in one year (about 587,849,981,000,000,000,000 miles!)
a massive ensemble of hundreds of millions of stars, all interacting through the gravitational force, orbiting around a common centre
What are the three types of galaxies (in no particular order)? What type of galaxy is the Milky Way?