What are the four layers of the sun, from inside to outside?
core, radiative zone, convection zone, photosphere
the brightness of a star on a scale of -8 to +17. The smaller the number, the brighter the star.
Name the special letters on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, in order from hottest temperature to coolest temperature.
(A helpful pneumonic to help you remember the special letters is in parentheses)
O(h), B(e), A, F(ine), G(irl), K(iss), M(e)
Name the three different types of novas, in order from longest to shortest lifespan.
pulsating variables, novas, supernovas
What are the two methods astronomers use for measuring distance from Earth to a star?
parallax method (uses geometry), apparent magnitude method (uses Cepheid variables)
Between the parallax method and apparent magnitude method, which has the most accuracy? And which can be used to measure long distances?
The parallax method is more accurate (because it is purely based on math).
The apparent magnitude method can be used to measure long distances (though it just makes assumptions and is not as accurate as the parallax method).
a massive ensemble of hundreds of millions of stars, all interacting through the gravitational force, orbiting around a common centre