Spoken Word Terminology
Distinctive manner of pronunciation that marks a regional/social identity.
The way people address each other, often status, age, gender, social class, inclusion and exclusion.
Essential unit of spoken language; interaction between different speakers - question and answer/command and response.
The subject of a conversation, which is not always formal.
Interrupting speech in order to introduce further information which may have made more sense at an earlier point.
Co-operative signal that provides feedback to the speaker to maintain the conversation (eg, "mm" or "right").
Speaker eases out of conversation with arrangements to meet again and farewells.
Everyday/non-formal quality in speech or writing, often seen through slang/non-standard features.
Signals, often from listener to speaker, which indicate they agree/want to know more.
Reference to speaker's position in space/time, such as the use of pronouns; the reference to objects and the use of temporal words.
Distinctive grammar/vocabulary that marks a regional/social identity.
In conversation, people do not always explicitly disagree, eg "yes but..."
Words/phrases that signal the relationship and connections between utterances.
Omission of sounds in connected speech, eg, "dunno".
Words which are omitted but understood, eg, "I'd like to go to the concert, but I can't".
Non-fluency feature common in spontaneous speech; the speaker begins an utterance then self-corrects and rephrases.
Non-fluency feature when an often meaningless word is inserted into speech for habit, eg, "you know".
Linguistic forms which expresses the speaker's uncertainty about a topic under discussion, eg, "I think".
A person's individual language system.
Interruption that requires a speaker's immediate attention, eg, knock at the door/ringing phone.
Smooth taking over of turns between speakers with no overlapping or pause.
A short unvoiced pause for breath in an utterance.
A check on one's communicativeness or a comment on someone's speech and reviewing the conversation at any given point.
Features of spontaneous speech, showing it is unplanned and has a hesitant nature (false starts, fillers, repetition, voiced pauses, hesitations).
Initial reactions between speakers; common inclusions are greetings and phatic small talk.
Two speakers speaking at once.
Features which are non-verbal but accompany speech, eg, gestures.
Formulaic utterances with stock responses which establish/maintain personal relationships.
Similar to repetition, but that of initial sound(s) of a word, but not considered stammering/stuttering.
Repeating a word/letter as the speaker searches for the right word/unsure of what to say next.
Prepared speech, written in script form but to be spoken aloud, eg, plays.
Instance where the speaker realises they have made a mistake and corrects it, generally a false start.
It is part of the conversation and lasts for a number of utterances which may effect the topic or elucidate/clarify/ explain a previous utterance.
Two people say the same thing at the same time, often in the form of overlap.
Unscripted speech; conversation which is unplanned and usually contains non-fluency features.
Familiar questions which are sometimes rhetorical, they appear at the end of statements to indicate that it is the listener's turn to speak.
An unvoiced pause, which can be timed in seconds.
Introduction of new topics in a conversation that may reflect the speaker's superior status.
Authentic/real conversation that actually took place written down with no editing to make the speech clearer.
The process which adjacency pairs take place in conversation with speakers talking in turn.
A unit of spoken English similar to sentences in writing but distinguished by the lack of punctuation/written grammatical structure.
Pauses of silence that allow the speaker time to consider their next utterance.
Non-fluency feature, also considered a hesitation marker, allowing thinking time in spontaneous speech (eg, "um", "err").
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