43 terms

Spoken Word Terminology

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Accent
Distinctive manner of pronunciation that marks a regional/social identity.
Address
The way people address each other, often status, age, gender, social class, inclusion and exclusion.
Adjacency Pairs
Essential unit of spoken language; interaction between different speakers - question and answer/command and response.
Agenda
The subject of a conversation, which is not always formal.
Backtracking
Interrupting speech in order to introduce further information which may have made more sense at an earlier point.
Back-Channelling
Co-operative signal that provides feedback to the speaker to maintain the conversation (eg, "mm" or "right").
Closing Sequence
Speaker eases out of conversation with arrangements to meet again and farewells.
Colloquial
Everyday/non-formal quality in speech or writing, often seen through slang/non-standard features.
Co-operative Signals
Signals, often from listener to speaker, which indicate they agree/want to know more.
Deictics/Deixis
Reference to speaker's position in space/time, such as the use of pronouns; the reference to objects and the use of temporal words.
Dialect
Distinctive grammar/vocabulary that marks a regional/social identity.
Disagreement
In conversation, people do not always explicitly disagree, eg "yes but..."
Discourse Marker
Words/phrases that signal the relationship and connections between utterances.
Elision
Omission of sounds in connected speech, eg, "dunno".
Ellipsis
Words which are omitted but understood, eg, "I'd like to go to the concert, but I can't".
False Start
Non-fluency feature common in spontaneous speech; the speaker begins an utterance then self-corrects and rephrases.
Filler
Non-fluency feature when an often meaningless word is inserted into speech for habit, eg, "you know".
Hedges
Linguistic forms which expresses the speaker's uncertainty about a topic under discussion, eg, "I think".
Idiolect
A person's individual language system.
Insertion Sequence
Interruption that requires a speaker's immediate attention, eg, knock at the door/ringing phone.
Latching-on
Smooth taking over of turns between speakers with no overlapping or pause.
Micropause
A short unvoiced pause for breath in an utterance.
Monitoring Devices
A check on one's communicativeness or a comment on someone's speech and reviewing the conversation at any given point.
Non-fluency Features
Features of spontaneous speech, showing it is unplanned and has a hesitant nature (false starts, fillers, repetition, voiced pauses, hesitations).
Opening Sequence
Initial reactions between speakers; common inclusions are greetings and phatic small talk.
Overlapping
Two speakers speaking at once.
Paralinguistic Features
Features which are non-verbal but accompany speech, eg, gestures.
Phatic Talk
Formulaic utterances with stock responses which establish/maintain personal relationships.
Recycling
Similar to repetition, but that of initial sound(s) of a word, but not considered stammering/stuttering.
Repetition
Repeating a word/letter as the speaker searches for the right word/unsure of what to say next.
Scripted Speech
Prepared speech, written in script form but to be spoken aloud, eg, plays.
Self-correction
Instance where the speaker realises they have made a mistake and corrects it, generally a false start.
Side Sequence
It is part of the conversation and lasts for a number of utterances which may effect the topic or elucidate/clarify/ explain a previous utterance.
Simultaneous Speech
Two people say the same thing at the same time, often in the form of overlap.
Spontaneous Speech
Unscripted speech; conversation which is unplanned and usually contains non-fluency features.
Tag Questions
Familiar questions which are sometimes rhetorical, they appear at the end of statements to indicate that it is the listener's turn to speak.
Timed Pauses
An unvoiced pause, which can be timed in seconds.
Topic Shifts
Introduction of new topics in a conversation that may reflect the speaker's superior status.
Transcript
Authentic/real conversation that actually took place written down with no editing to make the speech clearer.
Turn-Taking
The process which adjacency pairs take place in conversation with speakers talking in turn.
Utterances
A unit of spoken English similar to sentences in writing but distinguished by the lack of punctuation/written grammatical structure.
Unvoiced Pauses
Pauses of silence that allow the speaker time to consider their next utterance.
Voiced Pause
Non-fluency feature, also considered a hesitation marker, allowing thinking time in spontaneous speech (eg, "um", "err").
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