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Proteins made up of long chains of amino acids folded into a specific shape. Any factor affecting enzyme shape affects enzyme activity.
Enzymes are Specific
A different enzyme is needed for each reaction as different enzymes have particular shapes to match each substrate.
Is determined by which enzymes are active at a certain time. Can be altered by removing specific enzymes and synthesising new ones.
The part of the enzyme to which the substrate binds. Each site fits only one substrate molecule.
Lock and Key Model
Substrate fits perfectly into active site of enzyme. (Explains Enzyme Specificity)
Induced Fit Model
Shape of the active site is slightly changed to allow substrate to bind to enzyme.
Effect of Enzyme Concentration
Rate of reaction increases with enzyme concentration, provided substrate is in excess.
Effect of Substrate Concentration
Rate of reaction increases with substrate concentration until all active sites are in use. (After which there is no change)
Effect of Temperature
Increasing temperature causes more movement, thus causing a higher collision frequency and therefore enzyme action.
Permanent distortion of the active site caused by heat, rendering the enzyme inactive.
A substance that changes the shape of an enzyme and makes it unable to bind to a substrate
Enzymes which are attached to each other, to insoluble materials or enclosed in a membrane or gel.
Advantages of immobilised enzymes
Easy harvesting of product / Easy recovery of enzymes for Reuse / Greater enzyme stability.
Calcium chloride solution
used in Enzyme immobilisation experiment to harden the bound yeast into balls
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