Revolutionary War

Navigation Laws of 1650:
Aimed at rival Dutch shippers trying to get in on the American carrying trade.
Stated all commerce flowing to and from the colonies could only be transported by British ships.
Required that European goods shipping to America had to be first landed in Britain, where tariff duties could be collected and middlemen could take some of the profits.
American merchants must ship certain "enumerated" products, notably tobacco, exclusively to Britain, even though prices might be better elsewhere.
Loosely enforced.
Colonial merchants disregarded and evaded the laws
Sugar Act:
Taxation on sugar for the colonists as a fundraiser to regain the money lost from the war.
Indirect tax.
Instead of taxing the colonists, the goods are taxed.
Taxed the vendors.
Similar to the tax being put on the British people.
Distinction: No taxation without representation.
The British had Parliament representing them; colonists had nothing.
Currency Act:
Stated that the colonists had to pay for everything in gold and silver instead of the colonial paper money.
Stamp Tax:
First direct tax on anything made out of paper on the colonists.
Colonists protested by petitions, boycotts, and violence.
Violence: Sons of Liberty
A group of Bostonians dedicated to getting these taxes removed.
clarification No one was thinking about independence yet.
Resistence grows in Boston.
Quartering Acts:
Colonists were put under the responsibility of providing food and living quarters for the Redcoats.
Townsend Duties:
Tax on tea, glass, and paper.
Indirect tax as to not anger the colonists.
Colonists believed that the British were not in debt and that this was for profit.
Repealed in 1777.
Tea Act:
British repealed all taxes except on tea.
Prevent bankruptcy of the East India Tea Co.
Stopped black-market smuggling with the Dutch.
Sons of Liberty dumped all of the tea into the harbor.
Declaratory Act:
Parliament repealed the stamp act, but then issued the Declaratory Act.
Reaffirmed Parliament's right to control the colonies in any way they saw fit.
Quebec Act:
Gave the French freedom of religion.
Boundaries of Quebec were extended to the Ohio River.
The Intolerable Acts:
Boston port is closed until the tea is paid for.
No inclination or ability for the colonists to pay for the tea.
Caused shortages in Boston and put people out of work.
Reiterated the Quartering Act.
Considered sweeping and unjust.
George III:
Reigned over England during the Seven Years' War, the American Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812.
Accepted the limits of a constitutional monarchy.
Incapable of choosing a prime minister.
Most British citizens did not support war to retain colonies.
George and the Parliament wanted to keep the colonies in the empire.
Most colonists did not support the British redcoats going to America.
Lord North:
British prime minister during the Revolutionary War.
Salutary Neglect:
Developed by Edmund Burke.
Even with the colonies constantly breaking the rules of mercantilism, they make lots of money.
Completely ignore the colonies.
Denied by George.
Territorial growth:
The colonies wanted to extend to the west, but the British said no because that was where the Indians resided, and the British didn't want anymore wars with them.
The colonies thought that the British were trying to oppress them.
The First Continental Congress:
Tried to figure out how to talk to King George and England.
20 years later than the Albany Conference.
Showed how far the colonists had come from 20 years ago.
Decided that if the British attack one colony, it is an attack on all thirteen of them.
Response to the Intolerable Acts.
Met in Philadelphia.
Twelve out of thirteen colonies.
Minus Georgia.
Fifty-five men.
Drew a Declaration of Rights.
The Association:
Called for a complete boycott of British goods.
Not yet calling for independence.
Parliament rejected the proposals.
Second Continental Congress:
A month after Lexington and Concord.
Governing body during the Revolutionary War.
Representatives of New England are the most zealous.
Middle colonies representatives are tepid.
Most loyalists in the south.
Choose George Washington to lead the troops.
Having a southerner lead the Continental army made more southerns get on board with the war.
Lexington and Concord
"The shot heard round the world"
Propaganda victory for the colonists.
95 colonists killed, 250 British killed.
April 19, 1775
Fought in Massachusetts
Battle of Bunker Hill:
British suffer 1,000 casualties.
Colonists have the advantage because they shoot from the top of the hill.
Another colonial propaganda victory.
June 17, 1775
Fought in Massachusetts
The Invasion of Quebec:
Benedict Arnold leads the colonists in a raid to draw Canada away from the British empire.
Canadians did not want to be the 14th colony.
Did not want to fight the British.
Wanted to stay out of the Revolution.
December 30-31, 1775
Fought in Quebec
Battle of Long Island:
August 1776-January 1777
Took New York for the harbor and seal the south off from the war.
Lowest morale.
Washington and colonists failed.
British let them retreat.
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas Eve after Washington crosses the Delaware.
When Washington gets his notoriety.
Hessians were drunk.
Surprise attack.
Battle of Brandywine:
Washington takes back Philadelphia.
Where the Congress met.
Congress had already fled to the south.
Both sides suffered tremendous casualties.
Battle of Ticonderoga:
British take Ticonderoga back in 1777.
May 10, 1775
Fought in New York.
Battle at Saratoga:
Guerrilla warfare.
Horatio Gates told the colonists to aim for the officers.
British were shocked.
French become involved with the war.
French send equipment, supplies, and leadership.
Widens the war and forces the British to divert forces.
John Burgoyne:
British army officer.
Brought fine wine and food, china, mistresses, wives, and other luxuries.
British are surprised by the amount of trees, and have trouble moving through the muddy forests.
Turning point in the war.
British troop surrenders.
Fought in New York.
Battle at Yorktown:
Last major battle before negotiations.
Admiral de Grasse (French) offered the colonists a chance to join forces and take down British general Cornwallis.
Washington took the deal.
Colonists surrounded the British on land, and the French army blockaded them by sea.
Cornwallis surrendered after he realized that he was completely surrounded.
October 19, 1781
Fought in Virginia.
Treaty of Paris:
Brits were tired of fighting, despite George III's passion for the war.
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay gathered at Paris for a peace negotiation.
Guidelines provided by the Continental Congress.
Consult the French
Americans thought to freeze out the French.
Great Britain was to formally recognize the independence of the United States.
US is to go west to the Mississippi River, north to the Great Lakes, and to the south to Florida.
No persecution of loyalists.
Olive Branch Petition:
Drafted after the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Drafted by John Dickinson (Middle Colonies).
Addressed to King George as a way to make peace.
Problem: King George receives information of the loss at Bunker Hill at the same time that he receives the Olive Branch Petition.
John Dickinson:
Member of the First and Second Continental Congress.
From the middle colonies.
Deaded the committee to write the first Constitution.
Articles of Confederation:
Written at the same time Jefferson was penning the Declaration of Independence.
Goal was to preserve the basic structure of American Society and restore liberties taken away by Parliament.
A document to help a fledgling nation defeat England.
Congress debated the Articles for 16 months before passing.
Figured out what to do with the extra land.
Land Ordinance of 1785
AoC: States
Individual states organized their government on a formal basis. They did this by writing their own constitutions.
Process completed by 1780, and most state constitutions included:
Bicameral legislature
Elected governor
State court systems
Bill of Rights
AoC: Difficulties of a Confederacy
A marriage based on a few common goals.
No executive authority.
Varied interests.
AoC: US problems
Economic depression
War debts
Currency issue
No unified voice
No respect from other countries
Shay's Rebellion
Broke out of debtor's prison
Wanted to bring back no taxation without representation.
Annapolis Convention:
Result of Shay's Rebellion.
6 out of 13 states sent representatives.
The Philadelphia Convention of 1787:
Every state send representatives except Rhode Island.
May - Sept.
55 delegates.
Kept as a secret.
People though the idea of congress was not working for the size of the country.
Need a completely new framework of government that had never been created before.
Division of power between national, state, and local government.
Dramatically strengthened national government.
Firm, dignified, and respected.
Preserved the union and secured the rights Jefferson laid out in the Declaration but curb democracy.
Virginia Plan:
Established by James Madison.
Bicameral (two houses); population based representation.
New Jersey Plan:
Unicameral house congress with equal representation.
Connecticut Compromise (Great Compromise):
Bicameral congress (based off of Parliament)
Lower house
Population based representation
House of Representatives
Upper house
Equal representation
The Senate

Sent and selected by state legislatures. (back then)

3/5ths Compromise:
Counted the slaves as 3/5ths of a person in the census.
Former loyalists
East coasters
In Paris at the time.
Small farmers
The Federalist:
85 newspaper essays.
Written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay.
Defended the Constitution.
Urged the people of New York to ratify the Constitution.
New York, Virginia, Rhode Island, North Carolina.
Could not prosper outside of the Union, so they conceded to the Constitution.
Under a condition: creation of a Bill of Rights.
George Washington: Social
Apprehensive of his new job.
From Virginia.
First patron of the arts.
Preferred to stay at Mount Vernon.
Selected the site for the US capital, but did not serve there.
Renaissance man.
Produced whiskey.
"Action hero"
No children.
George Washington: Economic
Hired Hamilton, who established the economy of the US.
Acknowledged that economic development depended on trade with Britain.
High tariffs.
Consolidate the states' war debt and compile it into one big federal debt.
Whiskey Rebellion
Excise taxes
"Sin taxes"
Put on alcohol, tobacco and gasoline.
Farmers were upset because taxes were being placed on their products without receiving a share of it.
"No taxation without representation"
False, because they were represented.
Washington got soldiers to march to Philadelphia, which scared the rebels.
Assuming the debt of the wars.
Would establish a national line of credit.
No credit history up until that point.
National bank
George Washington: Political
Unanimously elected.
Established the cabinets, which grew to be the Washington Administration.
Neutrality Proclamation 1793
Consensus decision maker.
Jay's Treaty
Britain would capture American merchant ships and force the sailors to fight for the British navy.
Pickney's Treaty:
Allowed American access to the Mississippi River and the Port of New Orleans.
Three new states in the Union:
Farewell Address:
Beware of political parties.
No permanent alliances.
No European involvement.
Avoid sectionalism.
John Adams: Social
Most unsuitable president.
From Massachusetts.
Had to succeed Washington.
Poor people skills.
Scientist, doctor, orator
Went to Harvard.
John Adams: Economic
Loses Hamilton
Smoothed path for LA Purchase.
John Adams: Political
Minister to France and England.
First vice president.
XYZ Affair
France asked for money from the Americans in order to meet with an official.
America thought it was scandalous to ask for a bribe.
Worst decision of his presidency:
Signed the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Made it illegal to write negatively about certain government officials.
Added a secretary to his cabinet.
Created the first navy.
Convention of 1800
AKA Treaty of Mortefontaine
Treaty with France.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Wanted to be able to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Thomas Jefferson: Social
Democratic Republican.
First president to be inaugurated in DC.
From Virginia.
Had an affair with his slave, Sally Hemings.
Did not talk about it.
Quiet, but effective.
Hates criticism.
Hated presidency.
Especially during his second term.
Former lawyer and farmer.
Founded the University of Virginia.
One of the most casual presidents.
Thomas Jefferson: Economic
Used Alexander Hamilton's system of finance to fund the Louisiana Purchase.
Previously opposed this system.
Embargo Act of 1807.
New England was crippled.
Caused a national depression.
Repealed in 1809.
Eliminated national debt.
Louisiana Purchase.
Jefferson sent James Monroe to buy New Orleans for no more than $10 million.
Monroe came back with the entire Louisiana territory for $15 million.
Eliminated a foreign presence as the union's neighbor.
Fulfilled his idea of an agrarian society.
Thomas Jefferson: Political
Believed the Federalists had too large of a central government.
Feared a large militia.
Issued the Lewis and Clark expedition.
Gained geographic and scientific information.
Improved relations with the natives.
Mapped the territory.
Unable to deal with international crisis with Europe.
Issued the Embargo Act of 1807 to prevent going to war with France or England
No trading with anyone outside of the US.
Very controversial.
Chesapeake Leopard Affair
An American ship was fired upon by the British.
Brilliant politician.
Repealed the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Maintained neutrality.
Marbury vs. Madison 1803
Barbary Pirates
Located in North Africa.
Seize American ships.
Jefferson sent the Navy to deal with them.
Gave the Americans naval credibility.