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49 terms

sociology final part one ch 1-5

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scientific stage
According to Comte's approach, the kind of thinking favored by people such as the inventor of the light bulb, Thomas Edison, becomes widespread during which level of societal development?
interpretive sociology
method of sociological research that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
Durkheim
said that rich, single, [white] males are the most likely to commit suicide
theological stage
According to comte's approach, the earliest stage of sociological development; lasted until end of Middle Ages.
Metaphysical stage
According to Comte's approach, the stage of sociological development where people saw society as more of a natural than supernatural phenomenon.
positivism
a way of understanding based on science
critical sociology
method of sociological research that focuses on need for social change
scientific sociology
method of sociological research that focuses on systematic observations
structural functional approach
approach to sociology; society is a system where parts work together for stability
manifest functions
function of something that is intended, such as college leading to learning
latent functions
function of something that is unintended, such as college leading to marriage
social conflict approach
approach to sociology; society is an arena of inequality that creates conflict and change
symbolic-interaction approach
approach to sociology; society is a product of individual's everyday interactions
macro level orientation
Orientation of structural-functional and social-conflict approaches; looks at the forest instead of the trees.
micro level orientation
orientation of symbolic-interaction approach; looks at the trees instead of the forest.
non-material culture
type of culture that includes ideas created by members of a society
material culture
type of culture that refers to physical things
sapir whorf
hypothesis that language serves as the building blocks of reality; "if you don't have a word for something, it doesn't exist"
norms
rules and expectations of society
mores
widely observed norms that have moral significance, like "you shouldn't murder"
folkways
norms for routine or casual behavior, such as table manners
values
broad, culturally defined guidelines that define desirable behavior
beliefs
specific statements that people hold to be true
lenski
proposed that culture develops with technology; four levels include hunter/gatherer, pastoralism, agricultural, and industrial.
hunting and gathering
oldest technological level; men and women different roles but equal
pastoralism
second technological level, more unequal society
agriculture
third technological level, unequal society, honor-based system
industry
fourth technological level, reduced inequality
cultural change
set in motion by invention, discovery, and diffusion
id
freud's component of personality that includes basic drives opposed by society
ego
freud's component of personality that includes a person's efforts to balance the demands of society and innate pleasure-seeking instincts
super-ego
freud's component of personality that represents the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
family
most important socializing agent
anticipatory socialization
learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
childhood
north american cultural (not biological) concept of a carefree time of learning and play in the earliest part of life
total institution
people are isolated from the rest of society, supervised, with control, standardization, formal rules and daily routines enforced by administrative staff
status
a social position that a person holds
status set
all the statuses a person holds at a given time
ascribed status
social position received involuntarily, often at birth. Example : widow, teenager
achieved status
social position taken on voluntarily. Example: CEO
role
behavior expected of a person who holds a particular status
role set
all the roles attached to a single status
authoritarian leadership
style of leadership characterized by giving orders. Good in a crisis and motivates the group.
democratic leadership
style of leadership characterized by including everyone in decision making. Bonds group, but less successful in a crisis
Laissez faire leadership
Style of leadership where group is allowed to function on its own. Needs a motivated group to work properly, and not effective in promoting group goals.
dyad
less stable group of only two people
triad
more stable group of three people
groupthink
tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issues
bureaucracy
an organization model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently