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World Civ Final
Terms in this set (55)
plan by Germany to take France quickly before Russia could mobilize by violating Belgian neutrality; made Britain enter the war
intended to ensure victory over Franco-Russian alliance by holding off Russia with little force and attacking France quickly with great force in the lower countries
this plan was unsuccessful
War Guilt Clause
part of the Treaty of Versailles that required Germany to accept complete responsibility for WWI and to pay reparations
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.
created a New Germany based on a liberal constitution after the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
it was faced with huge war debts, political turmoil, and rising inflation
Stalin's successor as head of the Communist Party; was more open in his dealings with the West and less menacing; also not was paranoid and secretive as Stalin; was said to believe in peaceful coexistence with the West and challenged the west in economic rather than military competition (very bad joke in the future); helped Fidel Castro by secretly shipping missiles to Cuba
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere with affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
China's industrial northern province, invaded by Japan in 1931 --> League of Nations could not execute authority on countries that didn't recognize it -->US not willing to blockade Japan due to need for trade during Great Depression
The Invasion of Manchuria occurred when Japanese military officers who had been stationed in this Chinese province turned on the civilian government and League of Nations
this led to further militarization of Japan
a meeting between Allied leaders Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin to figure out the final steps of WWII
they agreed on subsequent territorial division of Europe
Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994
naval battle of WWII in which American planes inflicted severe damage on the Japanese fleet, sinking four of their six largest aircraft carriers
Conference organized by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck
representatives of the major European natins divided Africa amongst themselves, subject to "effective occupation"
Germany, Italy, and Japan during WWI
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union.
He was the supreme allied commander during the Cold War in 1945. After World War II, MacArthur was put in charge of putting Japan back together. In the Korean War, he commanded the United Nations troops. He was later fired by Harry Truman for insubordination.
Dien Bien Phu
the French military base fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops, ending French involvement in Indochina
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet brought the United States into World War II.
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
British colonial financier and statesman in South Africa made a fortune in gold and diamond mining; helped colonize the territory now known as Zimbabwe
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
largest amphibious invasion in history; turned the Germans inland/regained France; June 6, 1944
Commander in Chief of the combined Japanese fleet, led invasion of Pearl Harbor and Battle of Midway
a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany
leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2, leader of troops in Africa, and commander in D-Day invasion
Fascist dictator of Italy. He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia, joined Germany in the Axis pact, and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister.
Germany's massed tank formations used when they invaded Poland. They preceeded the soldiers who battled on foot.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Line that divided Korea
Soviet Union occupied the north and United States occupied the south during the Cold War.
Lyndon B. Johnson
the US president who privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism
1869-1948. Major spiritual and political leader of India and the Indian Peace Movement. Known as "Father of The Nation" in India for his defiance of British government and success in civil rights movement. Lead famous Dandi Salt March in opposition of British Salt Tax.
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
the colonies of Cambodia and Laos and Vietnam were formerly organized as ________
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
Osama bin Laden
(1957- 2011) Saudi Arabian multimillionaire and leader of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. He is responsible for numerous terrorist attacks on the United States including the destruction of the World Trade Center.
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
German lightning warfare. Characterized by highly mobility and concentrated forces at point of attack.
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Soviet leader up to their fall; recognized that communism was failing and that arms race had lowered Soviet living standards; reformed Soviet system through perestroika and glasnost and free elections and relaxed foreign policy and repudiation of Brezhnev Doctrine
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
Allied Powers (WWII)
France, Great Britain, US, USSR
Partition of Bengal
1905; A British partition of the wealthy northeastern Indian province of Bengal for administrative expediency; became a touch-point of anticolonial agitation; the Indian National Congress organized a boycott of British goods in protest
The Bolshevik leader who forced a class revolution on Russia. Ended Russian involvement in WWI. He attempted to turn Russia into an entirely communist state.
Persian Gulf War
Conflict that was triggered by a dispute over oil-drilling rights, leading to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. This war ended when the U.S. intervened, crushing Iraqi resistance and liberating Kuwait.
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam; he and his Viet Minh/Viet Cong allies fought French and American forces to a standstill in Vietnam, 1946-1973. Considered a nationalist by many, others viewed him as an agent of the Soviet Union and China.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Six Day War of 1967
(Israel), Following U.S. support of Israel during Israel's war against Syria and Egypt to regain territory lost during the _________, the Arab nations imposed an oil embargo, strictly limiting oil in the United States. A speed limit of 55 MPH was imposed, the oil pipeline in Alaska was approved in 1974 despite environmentalists' cries, and other forms of energy were researched
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