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Biology Chapter 17

Study Guide Questions! Review the power point also!
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biogeography
Variety of organisms that exist
Taxonomy
The science of describing, classifying, and naming organisms
taxon
A group within a taxonomic system
How did Aristotle classify life on Earth 2400 years ago?
Animals classified by land, water, or air
Describe the Linnaean system of classification
System of hierarchical categories; larger range to smaller range; Form and structure
order of hierarchies
Domain-> Kingdom ->Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species
Explain why we use binomial nomenclature to name organisms
Intended for all countries and languages
Why is the common name not a good method?
Not all languages have the same name for a common name as they would for a universal reason
What language is the scientific name and why?
Latin, because most languages derive from this language
What are the two parts of the name in binomial nomenclature?
Genus and Species
How is binomial nomenclature written?
The Genus word is italicized.
Eukaryotic cells
Membrane-bound nucleus and organelles
Prokaryotic Cells
smaller, no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
List 5 things that scientists can use to help classify organisms
1. Similarities between fossils
2. homologous features
3. Patterns of embryonic development
4. Chromosomes
5. Macromolecules such as DNA and RNA
What homologous features do eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells share?
Control center and a cell membrane
Carl Woese's contribution to revising the tree of life
Proposes major revision of classification system, compared ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences and grouped according to similarity
What evidence do we have for the last universal common ancestor?
Evidence supports all organisms' inherited rRNA genes from an ancient form of life.
Describe the Theory of Endosymbiosis
two organisms living together
3 domains
1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya
Six Kingdoms
1. Eubacteria
2. Archaebacteria
3. Protista
4. Fungi
5. Plantae
6. Animalia
Describe organisms that belong to Domain Bacteria/ Kingdom Eubacteria:
true bacteria
Describe organisms that belong to Domain Archaea:
Not considered to be bacteria
Describe organisms that are in kingdom Protista:
Not plants, animals or fungi, Difficult to generalize, mostly unicellular
Describe organisms that are in kingdom Fungi:
Heterotrophic: absorb nutrients, not ingest; Unicellular or multicellular
Describe organisms that are in kingdom Plantae
Multicellular plants; Photosynthesis for energy; Develop from embryos; Most live on land
Describe organisms that are in kingdom Animalia:
Multicellular; Heterotrophic; Develop from embryos; Symmetrical body organization; Able to move around environment
heterotroph
gets energy from others
autotroph
makes its own energy