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What is the zeta potential?
Net charge of cell and ionic cloud that travels with the cell, Want to lower the zeta potential for BB reactions, protein weakens the zeta potential
Will there always be agglutination if an antibody attaches to a Red cell antigen
No; cells may be sensitized
Can the specific antibody be determined from the screening cell antigram?
No can however make an educated guess
Are we only interested in agglutination reactions?
No we want to see if antibody or complement is attached
Will nucleotide base pairing with a template made from nuclear DNA direct the amino acid to line up in the proper order to form a protein?
Facts about screening cells antigram
Cannot definitely ID the antibody
Cannot determine the pt blood type
reaction at AHG is clinically significant
When should a D mosiac be suspected?
When a D+ person makes Anti D that is nonreactive with their own cells
When is dosage observed?
Homozygous cells will have a stronger reactions than will heteroygous cells
What is the purpose of neutralization?
Inactivates the ABY by binding the antibody to a soluble antigen
If high protein anti D is used and both the Du and control are positive, what does this indicate?
If high protein anti D is used, how should a positive Du and Du control be resolved?
Use monoclonal/polyclonal D antisera
Can anti Leb cause HDN? Is it clinically significant?
No won't cause HDN; it is IGM so not significant
What is used to resolve multiple antibodies?
Papain/ficin, reaction strengths and reactions temperature
If a previous antibody is now negative for the antibody, what type of blood should be given?
When should polyagglutination be considered?
A + antibody reaction using monoclonal/polycolonal antisera
What might cause variation in reaction strength in the antibody screen?
Dosage, multiple antibodies, poor technique
How can a rare antibody that is not on the screen or panel be detected?
Incompativle crossmatch of unit; if unit is positive for antigen
What lab results are important in determining component therapy in a massive transfusion?
PT, PTT, and platelet count
If the recipient's IAT isnegative but the donor's DAT is +, how will this affect a crossmatch?
Will cause an incompatible crossmatch
When calculation the frequencies, the Rh percentage is not usually given. Do you know the percentage for Rh?
How do you verify an antibody?
Perform a cell phenotype
Check to see if the ABY indicated by the panel reacts with the cell phenotype of antigen; If anti K is indicated by the panel, phnotype with K+ cells reacts? then K ABY
How many platelets does 1 unit of platelet concentrate contain?
55 x 10^9 make sure you look at units
Should a patient who had a previous antibody that is now negative for that antibody, be given antigen negative blood?
If a decreased platelet count does not increase following a platelet transfusion, what should be done?
use a single donor or HLA matched platelets
What may thalassemia patient be given to reduce the number of transfusion?
Erythropoietin to increase reticulocytes (neocytes) production
What are the symptoms for an intravascular hemolytic reaction?
Shock, renal failure, death
Also: DIC, Fever, chills, anxiety
Hemoglobinemia and Hemoglobinuria
What does "look-back" mean?
When donor finds out they are infected with HIV after giving blood. A letter is sent to recipient who has received the blood.
How is blood issued in an emergency situation?
Doctor must sign release form, give o= first; o+ if not a female of childb
If I and K antibodies are present, what phenotype should be given and should other precaustions be made?
Give K= blood, prewarm prior to transfusing
What adverse reaction is experienced during aphaeresis that is unique to aphaeresis?
What blood type should be given if the blood type changed after a bone marrow transplant?
Depends on the nature of the incompatibility and DAT results
IgA deficient recipient reacts to donor's blood; Rash and hives, use antihistamines
Several units of group A is given to group O person, Most serious reaction, may occur without prior exposure, associated with renal failure
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