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Which blood group has the most H substance?


Anti A and Anti B are produced by what?

Ingestion of bacteria, food, pollen

Why are cells washed in the AHG phase?

Remove traces of unbound serum globulin

What is the zeta potential?

Net charge of cell and ionic cloud that travels with the cell, Want to lower the zeta potential for BB reactions, protein weakens the zeta potential

Will there always be agglutination if an antibody attaches to a Red cell antigen

No; cells may be sensitized

What is prozone?

Antibody excess

What part of the antibody attaches to antigen?


If more cells are added than drops of antisera, is this a prozone or postzone?


What is the purpose of centrifugation?

Pushes cell closer together

Will shaking the cell button too hard cause a false = or false +?

False negative

What about too heavy of a cell suspension?

False negative

What are check cells?

D+ cells with anti D added

What are the most common blood types?

A and OAutosomal co dominant

How are blood group antigens inherited?

Autosomal co dominant

When are check cells added?

All negative AHG reactions

Can the specific antibody be determined from the screening cell antigram?

No can however make an educated guess

What blood type are screening cells?

Group O

What does titer mean?

ABY concentration capable of binding RBC antigens

What cell processes the antigen? Produces antibody

T cells; plasma cells

What does sensitized red cell mean?

Antibody attached but no agglutination

Are we only interested in agglutination reactions?

No we want to see if antibody or complement is attached

What specimen is used for ABO typing?

Pt red cells

Will nucleotide base pairing with a template made from nuclear DNA direct the amino acid to line up in the proper order to form a protein?


Wll A2 serum react with A2 cells?


Is Anti A, B reagent made from an AB person?


What could happen if a group O person receives group A blood?


Is Complement a protein?


When is lectin used

Resolves ABO disrepancies

What does titer mean?

Amount of Antibodies produced

Do most dA2 people make Anti A1?

No only if exposure to A1 cells
8% make antibodies to A1

Facts about screening cells antigram

Cannot definitely ID the antibody
Cannot determine the pt blood type
reaction at AHG is clinically significant
Detects IgG

When should a D mosiac be suspected?

When a D+ person makes Anti D that is nonreactive with their own cells

When is dosage observed?

Homozygous cells will have a stronger reactions than will heteroygous cells

What is the next step if the ABY screen is positive?

Perform a panel

What is the purpose of an elution?

Removes the antibody from cell membrane

What is the purpose of neutralization?

Inactivates the ABY by binding the antibody to a soluble antigen

With what are check cells coated?


If a recipient is B+ (Weak D+), transfuse with what?

B+ blood

Could a B+ Du+ develop anti D if the person is a mosaic?


If high protein anti D is used and both the Du and control are positive, what does this indicate?

Invalid Rh

What is the cause of a positive Du control?

Positive DAT

If high protein anti D is used, how should a positive Du and Du control be resolved?

Use monoclonal/polyclonal D antisera

What if the above problem is not resolved?

Give Rh negative blood

Can anti Leb cause HDN? Is it clinically significant?

No won't cause HDN; it is IGM so not significant

Can anti Lewis B be neutralized?

Yes; Lewis A and B and P can be neutralized

Is Lewis B IgG or IgM?


What blod type are screening cells?


What reagent detects complement in vivo?

Polyspecific AHG

How can a typing discrepancy due to a cold antibody be resolved?

Warm to 37 C and repeat

Which antibody is associated with malaria?


Which antibody is the most antigenic?

Anti D

Which is the second most antigenic?


Which antigen diminishes during pregnancy?


What is used to resolve multiple antibodies?

Papain/ficin, reaction strengths and reactions temperature

If a previous antibody is now negative for the antibody, what type of blood should be given?

Antigen negative

When should polyagglutination be considered?

A + antibody reaction using monoclonal/polycolonal antisera

What might cause variation in reaction strength in the antibody screen?

Dosage, multiple antibodies, poor technique

Which blood group can build Anti H?

A1B more likely

Polyspeckific AHG detects which complement component?

C3b, C2d

How can a rare antibody that is not on the screen or panel be detected?

Incompativle crossmatch of unit; if unit is positive for antigen

Who must have a Du performed if the D is negative?

Blood donor

What if an allo reacts at RT, not at 37C, but again at AHG?

Complement binding IgM is present

How can the above problem be corrected?

Incubate at 37 C using IgG AHG (mono specific)

Write fisher race for R1R1 and r'R1

R1R1 = DCe/DCe
r'R1 = dCe/DCe

What is the ethnic background of some one who has Lewis a, b and duffy A antibodies?


Anti I reacts with which cells?

O cells, A2 cells, pt cells
Does not react with cord cells

Which antibody can cause hemolysis in IAT at RT?

Lewis a

What is an example of a phenotype?


What antibodies are destroyed when ficin is used?

M, N, S & Duffy

An antibody showing dosage may have a variation in reaction strength by how much?


What are symptoms commonly displayed by donors?

Dizziness, nausea, sweating - vasovagal symptoms

Must FFP be type and Rh specific?

Yes for ABO; Rh is not a contributing factor

What is the safest blood to give?


What lab results are important in determining component therapy in a massive transfusion?

PT, PTT, and platelet count

Why is the minor cross match no longer performed?

Whole blood is not given

If the recipient's IAT isnegative but the donor's DAT is +, how will this affect a crossmatch?

Will cause an incompatible crossmatch

When calculation the frequencies, the Rh percentage is not usually given. Do you know the percentage for Rh?

85% Postive
15% negative

If you receive a specimen on a patient that is 5 days old, accept or reject?


Accept or reject a hemolyzed specimen?

Reject - complement has been activated

What is the per purpose of the elution?

Removes antibody from the RBC membrane

How can dosage be determined on a panel?

Stronger reaction with homozygous cells

Which antibodies are naturally occurring?


How do you verify an antibody?

Perform a cell phenotype
Check to see if the ABY indicated by the panel reacts with the cell phenotype of antigen; If anti K is indicated by the panel, phnotype with K+ cells reacts? then K ABY

Could some one who delivered a baby 4 weeks ago donate today?

No 6 weeks

If some one weighs 105 pounds can they donate?

Defer today

Does ficin destroy Kell?

No, has no effect

What blood should be given to a recipient?

Type specific that is antigen negative

How many platelets does 1 unit of platelet concentrate contain?

55 x 10^9 make sure you look at units

Does FFP contain platelets

No only coagulation factors

What causes cell lysis?


Should a patient who had a previous antibody that is now negative for that antibody, be given antigen negative blood?


Will the major crossmatch verify donor ABO compatibility?

Yes, generally

When should leukocyte-reduced RBCs be given?

History of febrile

What type of FFP should be given to a Group O= person?

ABO compatible so O

What does irradiation do to a unit?

Inactivates the donor lymphocytes

When should FFP be given?

Coagulation factor deficiencies

What should be given to someone with iron deficiency anemia?

Packed RBCs

What is the best way to prevent CMV infections in immunocopromised pt?

Filter the WBC

If a decreased platelet count does not increase following a platelet transfusion, what should be done?

use a single donor or HLA matched platelets

Can donors who have aphaeresis give blood more frequently?


How quicly must a unit be used after the unit has been entered?

2 hours

Can a blood transfusion be hooked up to an existing IV?


What may thalassemia patient be given to reduce the number of transfusion?

Erythropoietin to increase reticulocytes (neocytes) production

What component is removed after a gentle centrifugation?


What type of blood should be given to a 25 year old female who is B= and you have no B units?


Would a pt who is refractory to random platelets benefit from irradiated blood products?


What are the symptoms for an intravascular hemolytic reaction?

Shock, renal failure, death
Also: DIC, Fever, chills, anxiety
Hemoglobinemia and Hemoglobinuria

If someone has received RHIgG, what will be the titer?

Low, less than 1:32 (often 1:8)

Which AHG is used in a baby DAT?

Polyspecific AHG

If a warm auto is present, how is it detected?

Auto + at AHG stage

If donor has + DAT, what happens in the crossmatch?

Incompatibility in AHG stage

What does "look-back" mean?

When donor finds out they are infected with HIV after giving blood. A letter is sent to recipient who has received the blood.

If a unit is mistyped, how does this effect a crossmatch?

All reactions are positive

How is blood issued in an emergency situation?

Doctor must sign release form, give o= first; o+ if not a female of childb

What is the purpose of irradiation?

Immunocompromised Pt. GVHD

Will irradiated blood be helpful for platelets?


If I and K antibodies are present, what phenotype should be given and should other precaustions be made?

Give K= blood, prewarm prior to transfusing

What should be given if platelet count is normal, PT increased, PTT increased?


Is this an example of HDN: the baby is Rh+, DAT =, mom is Rh=, IAT =?


Could some one who is healthy, hct of 38% give for an autologous donation?


Can platelets be contaminated by bacteria?


Which hepatitis can be contracted from a transfusion?

B & C

Can HIV be transmitted by pooled cryo?


Can HIV be transmitted in pooled products?


What amount of blood loss can occur and the pt still feel well?

500 mL

During acute blood loss, is blood directed to the extremities?


What adverse reaction is experienced during aphaeresis that is unique to aphaeresis?

citrate toxicity

What blood type should be given if the blood type changed after a bone marrow transplant?

Depends on the nature of the incompatibility and DAT results

What are example of immune transfusion reactions?

Febrile and non hemolytic

What is an example of delayed adverse reaction?


In bone marrow transplant, is HLA or ABO of great importance?


What are the consequences of DHTR?

Decreased hct, increased bilirubin

Has the p24 antigen test eliminated the window period?


Should a mom who is D= Du+ receive RhIgG?


If a pt is experiencing platelet refractory problems, will irradiating the unit be required?


When would you not want to salvage blood?

Cancer such as tumor removal

How much will random platelets increase the platelet count

5,000 to 10,000 platelets/unit

Febrile Reaction

Leukodepleted produces are used

Allergic reaction

IgA deficient recipient reacts to donor's blood; Rash and hives, use antihistamines

Intravascular hemolysis?

Several units of group A is given to group O person, Most serious reaction, may occur without prior exposure, associated with renal failure

Extravascular hemolysis?

Associated with IgG antibodies
Reaction occurs seven days after transfusion.

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