The terminal electron acceptor in forms of bacterial respiration may be: a. Oxygen b. NAD c. an Organic molecule d. an inorganic molecule
The terminal electron acceptor in forms of bacterial respiration may be oxygen or inorganic molecules.
The name given to the reaction involving addition of electrons or hydrogen atoms to a compound is termed: a. Oxidation b. Reduction c. Respiration d.Fermentation e. Glycolysis
The name given to the reaction involving addition or electrons or hydrogen atoms to a compound is termed: reduction.
The most common starting pathway for the breakdown of sugars is a. Kreb's cycle b. Fermentation c. Glycolysis d. Oxidation e. All above
Glycolysis is the most common starting pathway for the breakdown of sugars.
Which of the following processes generates the greatest amount of energy? a.Glycolysis b. Fermentation c. Aerobic Respiration d. Phosphate Pentose Pathway
Aerobic respiration generates the greatest amount of energy.
Fermentation: a. uses organic molecules as electron acceptors b. uses inorganic molecules as electron acceptors c. is necessary to generate oxidized forms of electron carriers d. Is necessary to produce NADPH e. Both a and C
Fermentation uses organic molecules as electron acceptors and is necessary to generate oxidized form of electron carriers.
Pyruvate can be metabolized along two major routes.They are: a. fermentation and respiration b. reduction and oxidation c. metabolism and anabolism d. none e. all
Pyruvate can be metabolized by fermentation and respiration
The use of the suffix "ase" on a word denotes an: a. substrate b. product c. enzyme d. electron acceptor e. electron donor
Glycolysis a. requires oxygen b. produces only 3 molecules of ATP c. Produces 4 molecules of NAD d. May occur under aerobic or anaerobic conditions e. Both b and c are correct
Glycolysis may occur under aerobic or anaerobic conditions
The transition step a. links glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway. b. links the TCA cycle to the electron transport system c. links glycolysis to the TCA cycle d. Produces a molecule of inorganic carbon e. both C and D are correct
The transition step links glycolysis to the TCA cycle and produces a molecule of inorganic carbon
The TCA cycle produces a. ATP through substrate level phosphorylation b. ATP through oxidative phosphorylation c. Reducing power d. All above e. only a and c are correct
The TCA cycle produces ATP through substrate level phosphorylation and it produces reducing power.
In the mitochondrial electron transport system: a. NADH and FADH2 donate electrons at the same place b. NADH donates electrons in complex I c. FADH2 donates electrons in complex III d. None correct e. only b and c above are correct
In mitochondrial electron transport system, NADH donates electrons in complex I
The production or ATP via the Electron transport system, in either eukaryotes or prokaryotes, requires a membrane. True or False
TRUE TRUE TRUE
The proton motive force a. Is used to synthesize ATP b. Is used to drive prokaryotic flagellar roation c. is used to synthesize NADH d. all e. a and b only
Proton motive force is used to synthesize ATP and is used to drive prokaryotic flagellar rotation
Rotating the following answers any way necessary, but no changing their sequence or orientation, which is/are complementary to the sequence 5'AGGCUAAC3'? a. 5'TCCGATTG 3' b. 5'CTTAGCCT3' c. 3'TCCGATTG5' d. 3'TAAGCTTA5'
c. 3'TCCGATTGS5' is complementary to 5'AGGCUAAC3'
GCCCAAAG is a molecule of a. DNA b. RNA c. Part of a transcript d. Only a and b e. all above
Has free 3' OH a. DNA b. RNA c. both
DNA has a free 3' Oh
Has a free 2' OH a.DNA b. RNA c. both
RNA has a free 2' OH
Has a promotor Region a. RNA b. DNA c. both DNA and RNA
Has a ribosome binding site a. DNA b. RNA c. BOTH
RNA has a ribosome binding site
The 3' end of DNA a. refers to the OH group on the #3 carbon of deoxyribose b. Attaches to the 5' phosphate group of the incoming nucleotide c. Always has a thymine attached to it d. Always has an adenine e. only a and b
the 3' end of DNA refers to the OH group on the #3 carbon of deoxyribose and attaches to the 5' phosphate group of the incoming nucleotide
the complementary sequence to TTAC is GTA
Which is true about prokaryotic RNA polymerase a. It is used during transcription b. it does not require a primer c. it is part of a complex including a sigma factor that binds to the promoter region of DNA d. it reads the template in a 5' to 3' direction e. answers a-c correct
Prokaryotic RNA polymerase is used during transcription. It doesn't require a primer. IT is part of a complex including a sigma factor that binds to the promoter region of DNA
DNA replication in prokaryotes is usually unidirectional. T or F.
that **** is false
There are ___ codons that code for one of the 20 possible amino acids a. 60 b.64 c. 20 d. 61 e. 30
The ribosomes a. move along the tRNa in a 3'-5' direction b. move along the mRNA in a 5'-3' direction c. move along the DNA in a 5'-3' direction d. none e. all
Teh ribosomes move along the mRNa in a 5'-3' direction
In prokaryotes, the first amino acid borne by a tRNA is____and binds to the ____site in the ribosome
N-forml-methionine, P site
Insertional Mutation a) silent mutation b) missense mutation c)nonsense mutation d) transposon e)Intercalating agent
Insertional Mutation is a transposon
Addition of nucelotide to DNA strand a) silent mutation b) missense mutation c)nonsense mutation d) transposon e)Intercalating agent
Addition of nucleotide to a DNA strand is Intercalating agent
Nucleotide Substitution with amino acid change a) silent mutation b) missense mutation c)nonsense mutation d) transposon e)Intercalating agent
Nucelotide substitution with amino acid change is a missense mutation.
Nucleotide substitution with no amino acid change: a) silent mutation b) missense mutation c)nonsense mutation d) transposon e)Intercalating agent
Nucleotide substitution with no AA change is a silent mutation
Nucleotide substitution resulting in shortened protein is a) silent mutation b) missense mutation c)nonsense mutation d) transposon e)Intercalating agent
Chemical mutagens that mimic the naturally occurring bases are called: a. alkylating agents b. Intercalating agents c. Base Analogs d. Nitrous oxide
Chemical mutagens that mimic the naturally occurring bases are called: base analogs
Which of the following DNA strands would UV radiation have the most effect on? a. AACCGGG b. TATATACG c. AUAUCGAU d. AATTAGTTC e. both b and d above
AATTAGTTC would be most effected by UV radiation
What is not true about mismatch repair? a. it utilizes an endonuclease b. it requires DNa polymerase c. It requires DNA ligase d. It replaces both the new and template strand of affected DNA e. none
replaces both new and template strand of affected DNA
Mutations a. may occur spontaneously b. are always harmful c. can result in resistance to antibiotics d.all e. only a and c are correct
Mutations may occur spontaneously and can result in resistance to antibiotics.
Direct selection of mutation involves inoculating cells onto growth media on which a. the mutant but not the parental cell type will grow. b. The mutation will be reversed c. the nutrients needed for mutation to occur are present d. the mutagen is present
the mutant but not the parental cell type will grow during direct selection of mutation
Indirect selection of a mutant a. is necessary to isolate auxotrophic mutants b. requires medium on which the mutant, but not the parental type will grow c. uses media upon which neither the parental cell type or mutant grows d. both a and b above are correct e. both a and c above are correct
Indirect selection of a mutant is necessary to isolate auxotrophic mutants
The ames test identifies potential carcinogens by measuring the rate of generation of auxotrophic mutants. TRUE OR FALSE
In performing the Ames test using His- auxotrophs, if a chemical is a mutagen you would expect a) an increase in auxotrophs b) an increase of His+ cells c) an increase in revertants d) both a and b e) both b and c
You would expect both an increase of His+ cells and an increase in revertants.
What part of the attached bacteriophage enters through the host cell envelope a)the capsid and nucleic acid b) The capsid only c) the nucleic acid d) the enzymes necessary for replication of the virus
The nucleic acid only
An infection resulting when a phage replicates inside the host cell and then lyses its host during its release a) is a productive infection b) is a lysogenic infection c) is a lytic infection d) a and b e) a and c
It is a productive infection and a lytic infection
What part of E. Coli T4 phage attaches to the host cell receptors? a) spike proteins of the envelope b) fiber proteins of the tail portion c) spike proteins of the caspid d) genomic DNA
Fiber proteins of the tail portion attach to the host cell receptors
Filamentous phage a) cause a productive infection b) infect only F- cells c) infect only F+ cells d) a and b e) a and c
Filamentous phage cause a productive infection and infect only F+ cells
The bacterial viruses that are extruded (leaked) from a bacterial cell, but do not kill the cell a) are filamentous b) are M13 phage c) are temperate d) are called lambda phage e) both a and b above are correct
are filamentous and M13 phage
Bacterial DNa is protected from restriction enzymes that the bacterium produces by being a) coated with a membrane b) made into double-stranded RNA c) Methylated d) Acetylated e) none above
bacterial DNA protected by being methylated
Once inside the host cell, lytic phage DNA a) is replicated b) can be digested by restriction endonucleases c) is transcribed d) all above
lytic phage DNA (once inside the host cell) is replicated, can be digested by restriction endonucleases and is transcribed
The host range of a bacteriophage depends on the presence of host receptor molecules. True or False
An antibiotic is added to a culture of E. Coli, resulting in death of the cells. Bacteriophage are then added. What could then occur? a) Attachment b) Penetration c) Replication, assembly, and release d)all e) a and b
Attachment, Penetration, "Replication, assembly, and release" could all occur
Which of the following means of DNa repair mechanisms does not require replacement of the damaged DNA with newly synthesized DNA? a) Dark repair of thymine dimers b) mismatch repair c) Light repair of thymine dimers d)all e) none
Light repair of DNA does not require replacement of the damaged DNA with newly synthesized DNA.