APUSH Unit 5 Vocab
Terms in this set (91)
A monopoly that controls goods and services, often in combinations that reduce competition.
Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons" An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901.
Knights of Labor
Led by Terence V. Powderly; open-membership policy extending to unskilled, semi skilled, women, African-Americans, immigrants; goal was to create a cooperative society between in which labors owned the industries in which they worked.
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.
the purchase and prominent display of luxury goods to provide evidence of a consumer's ability to afford them.
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
system of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter.
America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Francisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy because they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations.
Dept. of Interior
Cabinet department responsible for the management of public lands, wildlife, natural resources, and Native American affairs. Established in 1849.
Booker T Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Ida B Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcars or shop in white owned stores.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Suffragette who, w/ Lucretia Mott, organized the 1sr convention on women's rights held in Seneca Falls; issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women; co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association w/ Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
A description often applied to the late 19th century belief of people such as Herbert Spencer and others who argued that "survival of the fittest" justifies the competition of laissez-faire capitalism and imperialist policies.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration.
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
A state level method of direct democracy that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislative action or a proposed amendment. Occurs when a state wants the voter's opinion on a controversial issue.
A ritual the Sioux performed to bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land.
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
1887 law which gave all Native American males 160 acres to farm and also set up schools to make Native American children more like other Americans.
colleges and universities created from allocations of public land through the Morrell Act of 1862 and the Hatch Act of 1887. These grants helped fuel the boom in higher education in the late nineteenth century, and many of the today's public universities derive from these grants.
A government payment that supports a business or market.
The major organization for suffrage for women, it was founded in 1890 by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Supported the Wilson administration during World War and split with the more radical National Woman's Party, who in 1917 began to picket the White House because Wilson had not forcefully stated that women should get the vote
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom. HULL HOUSE.
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity.
Currency of the United States, prior to 1873, which consisted of gold or silver coins as well as U.S. treasury notes that could be traded in for gold or silver.
monetary standard based on two metals, usually silver and gold
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies.
Colored Farmer's Alliance
Excluded on the basis of race from membership in the Southern Farmers' Alliance, the blacks formed a separate organization in Texas in 1886. The Colored Farmers' Alliance comprised both black farmers and farm workers. They were active in the publication of a weekly newspaper and a variety of educational programs. In 1891, a strike of cotton pickers was called, but coordination was poor and the strike failed. Also lost support when the populist party arose.
Las Gorras Blancas
the Whitecaps, group of Mexican Americans living in New Mexico who attempted to protect their land and way of life from encroachment by white landowners.
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads. 1866, first national farm organization, "Granger Laws" in some states helped set maximum railroad rates and eliminated other questionable railroad practices.
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
A cash refund given for the purchase of a product during a specific period.
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution.
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 congressional legislation designed to break up industrial trusts such as the one created by John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil. The bill stated that any combination of businesses that was "in the restraint of trade" was illegal. Because of the vagueness of the legislation and the lack of enforcements tools in the hands of the federal government, few trusts were actually prosecuted as a result of this bill.
strike in Chicago that turned violent killing 8 policemen and a number of civilians; Workers were striking for an 8 hour work day and better working conditions.
The belief that the government shouldn't intervene much in the economy and should instead let the people do what they want with their property.
19th-century American author, best known for his many formulaic juvenile novels about impoverished boys and their rise from humble backgrounds to lives of middle-class security and comfort through hard work, determination, courage, and honesty. Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work.
a community experiencing a sudden growth in business or population.
Helen Hunt Jackson
an author who wrote A Century of Dishonor which chronicled the government's actions against the Indians. She also wrote Romona, which was a love story about Indians. Her writing helped inspire sympathy towards the Indians.
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them.
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
Idea that the south should industrialize after the Civil War. Despite calls for industrialization, sharecropping and tenant farming persisted in the South.
Journalist from Georgia who coined the phrase "New South". Promoted his ideas through the Atlanta Constitution, as editor. He planned Atlanta's International Cotton Exposition.
Civil Rights Cases 1883
Name attached to five cases brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in a variety of public accommodations, including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private discrimination and not state discrimination.
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights.
Opposed Booker T. Washington. Wanted social and political integration as well as higher education for 10% of African Americans-what he called a "Talented Tenth". Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.
Munn v Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash v Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
A (farmers) platform that would have significant impact in later years: They supported 1) direct election of US senators, 2) lower tariff rates, 3) a graduated income tax, and 4) a new banking system regulated by the federal govt.
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Founded WCTU to outlaw selling/drinking alcohol. She was married to an abusive man that she killed with an axe and she didn't get punished for it. She formed a group that walked into bars with axes.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be.
The writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910); used "realistic fiction".
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing.
Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they believed in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.
A leading architect of skyscrapers in the late nineteenth century, stressed the need for building designs that followed function. His works combined beauty, modest cost, and efficient use of space.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
He used yellow journalism in competition with Hearst to sell more newspapers. He also achieved the goal of becoming a leading national figure of the Democratic Party.
William R. Hearst
Newsman whose newspapers were highly sensationalist and evoked a "gee whiz emotion" & used yellow journalism to appeal to the audience. who said, "you furnish the pictures and ill furnish the war?"
Jelly Roll Morton
African American pianist, composer, arranger, and band leader from New Orleans; Bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz; Was the first important jazz composer.
Rum, Romanism and Rebellion
1884-an insult made against NY Irish-Americans by a republican clergyman in the 1884 election. Blaine's failure to repudiate this statement lost him NY and contributed to his defeat by Grover Cleveland.
Republican campaign tactic that blamed the Democrats for the Civil War; it was used successfully in campaigns from 1868 to 1876 to keep Democrats out of public office, especially the presidency.
Term applied to the one-party (Democratic) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
Led by U.S. Senator Roscoe Conkling--also known as "Lord Roscoe"--Stalwarts were sometimes called Conklingites. Other notable Stalwarts include Chester A. Arthur and Thomas C. Platt, who were in favor of Ulysses S. Grant, the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877), running for a third term. They were the "traditional" Republicans who opposed Rutherford B. Hayes's civil service reform. They were pitted against the "Half-Breeds" (moderates) for control of the Republican Party. The only real issue between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds was patronage. The Half-Breeds worked to get civil service reform, and finally created the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. This was signed by Arthur, who became President after the assassination of James A. Garfield, a Half-Breed. Stalwarts favored traditional machine politics.
Anti-Stalwarts, led by James G. Blaine. A political faction of the Republican Party; favored civil-service reform and the merit system
a person who is unable to make up his or her mind on an issue; a person who is neutral on a controversial issue. Republican Party activists who had switched to the Democratic Party because they did not like the financial corruption that was associated with the Republican candidate James G. Blaine in 1884.
Pendleton Act 1881
Set up Civil Service Commission, federal jobs by exams.
McKinley Tariff 1890
High import tariff that caused domestic prices to get high and upset consumers.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff 1894
Protective tariff that was passed to ease the Panic of 1893—It had an amendment on it that created a graduated income tax.
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Bland-Allison Act 1878
Law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars.
Four year economic depression caused by over-speculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver).
Political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
A group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched on Washington during the depression of 1893.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925).
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
Successfully championed McKinley's presidential campaigns in the 1896 and 1900 presidential elections; Pro-business leader who supported the gold standard; Senator from Ohio from 1897-1904