128 terms

Criminal Justice

Three-strikes laws are representative of:
mandatory sentencing
In regard to sentencing, cooperating with the authorities, good character, and no prior record are examples of _______ factors
what kind of parole hearing determines whether the parolee has violated the conditions of his or her parole
revocation hearing
According to the National Institute of Corrections _____ percent of women entering prisons are mothers.
Proportionally demands
A direct relationship between the severity of the sanctions and the seriousness of the crime
Which type of sentence requires that offenders serve time in a local jail before a period of supervised probation?
split sentence
According to the National Institute for corrections the profile for a female prisoner in American would include the following characteristics:
survivor of a physical or sexual abuse
Prison ______ is the slang characteristic of prison subcultures and prison life
_____is a court requirement that an alleged or convicted offender pay money or provide services to the victim of the crime or provide services to the community
What world describes aggressive men who assume the masculine role in homosexual relations in male prison?
Who created the Irish system of imprisonment?
Sir Walter Crofton
Eye witness testimony and videotaped documentation are examples of what kind of evidence?
What percent of inmates successfully complete parole?
The Pennsylvania style of imprisonment was characterized by:
solitary confinement and individual cells
The dual-court system consists of:
state and federal courts
Which US supreme court case established the right to counsel for juvenile defendants?
In Re Gault
The primary purpose of probation has always been ______
What percentage of death row inmates are African-American?
Prison language is called:
prison argot
Which is NOT a type of juror challenge?
Change for knowledge
There is/are ______ district court(s) in the federal court system
_____capacity refers to the inmate population the institution was originally built to handle
What amendment guarantees the right to an impartial jury?
Which of the following sentences is a prison reentry strategy?
Weapons, tire tracks, and fingerprints are what type of evidence?
Real evidence
What is the name of the jail-management strategy that joins popular/unit structure with a participative, proactive management philosophy?
direct supervision
The majority of offenders in federal institutions have been convicted of:
drug offenses
A preliminary hearing is held to:
determine if there is a probable cause to hold the defendant for trial
Factors that increase the degree of culpability for an offender are known as:
aggravating circumstances
Release on recognizance:
results in the defendants release based on a guarantee that a defendant provides in writing
A(n) _____ is a formalized argument, usually involving a neutral hearing board, whereby inmates have the opportunity to register complaints about conditions of their confinement
grievance procedure
After Bob is convicted of murder in a trial court he goes to a higher court and asks that court to review the decision to convict him. The higher court:
has appellate jurisdiction
Suits to formally request a hearing to determine the lawfulness of imprisonment are generally called:
writs of habeas corpus
which of the following does NOT occur at the first appearance?
A defendant had the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses
Revocation of probation or parole:
requires procedural safeguards including a hearing3
A motion for _____ asks the court to move the trial to another jurisdiction
change of venue
Bail serves 2 purposes. One is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial. The other is:
the prevent people who have not been convicted from suffering imprisonment unneccessarily
The socialization of inmates into the prison subcultures is called:
A court of last resort has ______ jurisdiction
US vs. Hazzard held that bail can be denied when the accused is:
a danger to the community
Who is responsible for summoning members of the public for jury duty and subpoenaing witnesses for the prosecution and the defense
the clerk of court
Pell vs. Procunier applied the ____ test to the corrections arena, attempting to weigh the rights of the individual against the authority of the state
What do we call laws that limit the right to bail for certain defendants changed with certain crimes
danger laws
What era was based on the medical model of corrections
_______ justice is a sentencing model that builds on restitution and community participation in an attempt to make the victim "whole again"
Cases begin in courts _______ jurisdiction
Maryland vs. Craig upheld the use of ______ to shield children who testify at trail
a curtain
These are considered professions in the courtroom except:
A victim
What is the primary sentencing tool of the just dessert's model
______ procedures may include a presentance investigation and dispute-settlement proceedings
States that followed the federal court model have how may tiers?
The fed court system is comprised of the US ______ courts, US courts of appeal, and the supreme court
A state misdemeanor case is likely to start in:
a trail court of limited jurisdiction
A ______ institution is an enclosed facility separated from society both socially and physically, where the inhabitants share all aspects of their lives daily.
Mempa vs. Ray held that a probationer should have the opportunity for ______ before a deferred prison sentence can be imposed
The US supreme court case Marbury vs. Madison established the courts authority as the _______ of the US constitution
final interpreter
The power of a court to review actions and decisions made by other agencies of government is:
the power of judicial review
The examination of a convicted offender's background prior to sentencing
presentence investigation
What type of bail is like a credit contract
unsecured bonds
Bob consigns all of his stock holdings to the court. What type of bail did he post
property bond
What federal law reduced the number of suits brought by state prisoners in federal courts
prison Litigation reform
Morrissey vs. Brewer provides procedural safeguards to parolees at _____ hearing
Erving Goffman used what term to describe places where the same people work, recreate, worship, eat and sleep together
total insitutions
______ capacity is the number of inmates that a facility can effectively accommodate based on an appraisal of the institution's staff, programs, and services
Virtually every person in jail and 97% of those incarcerated in prison:
will eventually be released back into society
The California Department of Corrections had an unwritten policy of racially segregated prisoners in order to prevent racial violence. In 2005 the US supreme Court reviewed that policy and held that it:
was unconstitutional
Who is recognized as the worlds first probation officer
John Augustus
Wolf vs. McDonnell provided inmates with:
appropriate due process before sanctions could be levied against them
What early correctional leader developed a system of marks through with prisoners could earn credits to buy their freedom?
Captain Alexander Maconchie
What type of inmate labor system allows private businesses to pay to use inmate labor?
contract system
A dormitory-like setting, private rooms, and unarmed correctional officers are characteristics of ______ security institutions
________ is the official suspension of criminal or juvenile proceedings against an alleged offender at any point after a recorded justice system intake, but before the entering of a judgement, and referral of the offender to a treatment or care program
Probation, parole, home confinement, and electronic monitoring are examples of:
community-based corrections
Rated, operation, and design are three types of prison ______
What court is the first appellate level for courts of limited jurisdiction
trial courts of general jurisdiction
The federal Speedy Trail Act allows for the dismissal of charges when the prosecution does not seek indictment within ______ days of arrest, or when a train does not begin within 70 days after indictment
Fed probation officers have the authority to arrest probation violators, but they are encouraged to obtain an arrest warrant from a court and have the warrant executed by:
the US marshal service
The Auburn System of imprisonment became popular during which prison era?
mass prison
A _____ system is used by prison administrators to assign inmates to custody levels based on offense history, assessed dangerousness, perceived risk of escape, and other factors
The largest growth group in jails nationwide is:
A writ of habeas _____ directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring him or her before a judicial officer to determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment
How many security levels are there in the federal prison system?
AIMS is best known as:
internal classification system
The National Institute of Correction defines _____ as "creating an environment that reflects an understanding of the realities of women's lives and addresses the issue of women"
A sentences of 8-25 years is an example of a(n):
indeterminate sentence
When a trail court of general jurisdiction offers a new trial instead of appellate review of a lower courts decision, it is giving a:
trial de novo
The Federal Prison Rehabilitation Act of 1965 authorized ______ for federal prisoners
work release
Zebulon Brockway, a leading advocate of indeterminate sentencing, its associated with the ______ era
Which sentencing practice gives the offender a fixed term that may be reduced by good time or gain time?
Quaker, penance, and the Pennsylvania style of imprisonment is tied to the _______era
In Batson v Kentucky the supreme court held that the use of premtory challages ________ was unconstitutional
to confuse the defense
A presumptive sentencing model includes all the following except:
vast judicial discretion
A victim-impact statement is:
usually a written document describing the suffering and trauma experienced by the crime victim used before the sentencng
What goal of sentencing is sometimes referred to as the "lock em up approach"
Original Jurisdiction:
Authority to hear a case from beginning and past judgement
Appellate Jurisdiction:
Authority to review decision by a lower court
General Jurisdiction:
Formal court, hear trial of trial de novo
Subject Matter Jurisdiction:
Is the authority of a court to hear cases of a particular type or cases relating to a specific subject matter
Greg v Georgia:
Approved the two-step trial procedure in Capital Cases (reinstated death penalty)
Mc Clesky v. Kemp:
Statistical analysis to determine if race is a factor
Furman v. Georgia:
made the death penalty unconstitutional
Robinson v. California:
Made legal to convict on addiction to narcotics
Gideon v. Wainwright:
Guarantees your right to council
Marbury v. Madison:
Established court authority as final interpreter
U.S. v. Booker:
Constitutionality of federal sentencing practicing
Powell v. Alabama:
Be given reasonable time to secure counsel and go through due process
Ring v. Arizona:
right to a jury trial and minimum sentencing
Apprendi v. New Jersey:
Requiring judges sentencing to consider facts not proven to a jury is unconstitutional
In Re Kemmler:
Death penalty for juvenile
Morrissey v. Brewer:
Provides procedural safeguards to parolees at revocation hearings
Gagnon v. Scarpelli:
Right to counsel. Probationers have right to 2 trials.
Mempa v. Rhay:
That a probationer should have the opportunity for counsel before a deferred prison sentence can be imposed
Ruiz v. Estelle:
Texas prison conditions were cruel and usual punishment. gave inmates better conditions in prison
Wolff v. McDonnel:
Provided inmates with appropriate due process before sanctions could be levied against them
In re Gult:
established the right to counsel for juvenile defendants
Imprisonment other means to stop from doing again
Fear of Punishment by for past or future crime
Rehab, change behavior
Make victim whole
Sir Walton Crawford:
Created the Irish imprisonment system
Captain Alexander Maconochie:
Developed a system of marks through which prisoners could earn credits to buy their freedom
Alexis De Tocqueville:
French stressed dangers of contamination in the auburn system where prisoners can negatively influence one other.
Tom Granger:
First Juvenile sentenced to death by hanging in America
Jane Champion:
First female hanged in America
George Kendell:
First execution in America
Erving Goffmen:
Used the term total institutions to describe places where people work, worship, eat, and sleep together
Zebulon Broakway:
Leading advocate of indeterminate sentencing is associated with the Reformatory Era