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16 terms

Ch. 8 Section 1 & 2 Vocab Quiz

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calorie
unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure
carbohydrate
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
fat
formed from fatty acids and glycerol
protein
supply raw materials for growth and repair of structures such as muscle and skin
vitamin
organic molecule that helps regulate body processes
mineral
inorganic nutrient the body needs, usually in small amounts
amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
esophagus
food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
peristalsis
rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach
stomach
an enlarged and muscular saclike organ
chyme
liquid mixture of food and stomach fluids released from the stomach into the small intestine
small intestine
digestive organ in which almost all of the digestive enzymes enter the intestine and most chemical digestion takes place
pancreas
gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
liver
Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile
villus
folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from undigested material and the remaining material is eliminated from the body