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general information about S. aureus

Gram-positive, coccus shaped, facultative anaerobe, Greek name "bunch of grapes", halotolerant

habitat for S. aureus

normal flora of the skin, found also on fomites, normal flora on animals, found growing in dairy such as cheese and milk

S. aureus as a pathogen

opportunistic pathogen, most commonly associated with skin infections ofter nosocomial


caused by S. aureus and infects the heart valve


caused by S. aureus and infects the bones and joints

brain abscesses

caused by S. aureus and infects the brain


caused by S. aureus and infects the lungs

food poisoning

can be caused by S. aureus and can come from dairy


S. aureus has become resistant to methicillin, often found in health care facilities because many carry MRSA, transmitted by touch, sharing razors, towels and other personal items

S. caprae

destroys tissue around bones and joints, esp. after a fracture

S. saprophyticus

common cuase of urinary tract infections

S. epidermidis

common nosocomial infections and found on medical devices

general information about Campylobacter jejuni

gram-negative, helical cork-screw shaped, enteric pathogen, motile via flagella, microaerophilic,can grow in a variety of temperatures

habitat of C. jejuni

on warm-blooded animals, pathogenic to humans, spread through oral fecal route, can survive in the stomach so reaches large intestine can live in water, poultry is the most common source of infection to humans

virulence factors S. aureus

toxins make holes in the host cells- can survive high heat and food processing, proteases that break down collagen and other host tissue proteins, can form biofilms on medical devices such as IV's and catheters

C. jejuni as a pathogen

what is the importance of the cork screw shape, motile, cytholethal distending toxin causes severe diarrhea, less than 500 cells needed for symptoms to appear, causes typical GI symptoms, endotoxins can survive high heat

prevention and treatment of C. jejuni

hand-washing,thoroughly cooking food to reduce exposure, washing vegetables, antibiotics and hospitalization, acute infection, replacing electrolytes

complication with C. jejuni

neurological disorder (paralysis) Guillain-Barre syndrome

helicobactor pylori

same genus as C. jejuni, survives in the human stomach; causes ulcers; similar corkscrew shape, also gram-negative

salmonella and shigella

same genus as C. jejuni and also causes food poisoning and similar symptoms; also gram-negative and motile

general information of human papillomavirus

double-stranded DNA virus, non-enveloped, icosahedral shape, over 100 strands, all viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, commonly grouped as low or high risk depending on strain's potential cause of cancer, papilloma virus?,slow infection

habitat of HPV

no animal host, normal flora in humans, can infect any part of skin, colonize the respiratory and genital tracts

HPV transmission

can be transmitted by skin to skin, mother to child during birth, sexually transmitted

HPV-6, 11

low risk HPV, common cause of genital warts, also called condylomas, not associated with cancer, affect men and women, can be passed from mother to child, sexually transmitted


high risk, commonly associated with multiple types of cancer, responsible for 70% of all cervical cancers in women, can affect men also, most commonly transmitted sexually

prevention and treatment

regular screening for cervical cancers, minimize number of sexual partners, carriers may not know they are infected, gardisil vaccine, prescription cream for warts or crysurgery to remove warts,

gardisil vaccine

vaccine used to protect against HPV, NOT a treatment, effective against HPV 6,11,16,18 only , approved for men adn women ages 9-26(why not older?), optional, doesnt treat warts or cancer

general information of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

gram positve,bacillus, mycolic acid in cell wall, obligate aerobe, non-motile very slow generation time, most common in humans but can survive in the air

mycolic acid

virulence factor of M. Tb and prevents many stains from adhering to bacteria, forms an extra layer of lipids that protects the bacteria, gives the bacterium its name

causes Tb

infection in the lungs, spread by inhalation to respiratory tract, chronic or latent infection (symptoms are pressent in active infection), leading cause of death

virulence factors of Tb

capsule, which attaches to host/ avoiding the immune system. slow generation time, which can grow w/o triggering immune system immediately, mycolic acid, tubercles, which are structures that fform in the ungs during the latent form of the infection, made of living bacteria and mycolic acids, can convert to the active form

prevention and treatment of Tb

sanitation, screening healthcare workers and as asymptomatic carriers, tuberculin skin test, BCG vaccine, antibiotics that target mycolic acid

Tb skin test

only tests if youre exposed, NOT if youre sick, redness indicates immune reaction to TB protein, chest x-ray mest confirm a positive skin test

BCG vaccine

safe vaccine but not effective if you are a carrier, can cause false-positive skin test, developed from M. bovis

antibiotics for Tb

targets mycolic acids ( why?), TB is becomg drug-resistant

M. bovis

source of BCG, causes Tb in cows, may have been origin of M. Tb when was transferred to humans via unpasteurized milk

M. leprae

causes leprosy in humans

general information in Clostridium botulinum

gram positive bacillus, obligate anaerobe, forms endospores, motile, primary pathogen in humans,

habitats for C. botulinum

mainly found in soil, GI tract of many animals, such as fish and livestock, spores can be airborne and contaminate vegatables

C. botulinum virulence factors

endospore; neurotoxins, which causes paralysis and many neurological symptoms, exotoxins(protein), can travel through the body, blocks acetylcholine, which prevents neurons from communicatien with muscle cells, leading to paralysis

food borne botulism

often found in canned food or unpasteurized foods like honey and syrups, causes GI symptoms and leads to paralysis, infants are especially susceptible because of weak immune system, endospores are important for survival in foods,

wound botulism

spores enter a wound and travel throughout the bloodstream, no GI symptoms, only neurological

prevention and treatment

anti-toxin?, no vaccine, antibiotics arent effective, early diagnosis are key, infants can receive antitoxin

usefulness of C. botulinum

possible bioweapon because the neurotoxin is very potent and endospores make it easy to spread the bacteria; botox, the toxins paralyze muscles leading to wrinkle relaxation, can be used for muscle spasm disorder like hyperhidrosis and lazy eye

C. perfringens

causes gas gangrene; part of normal flora; problem in wound infections

C. tetani

causes tetanus; powerful neurotoxins; fatal

C. dificile

GI symptoms; normal flora; often causes problems when antibiotic treatment kills other normal flora, allowing C. dificile to become dominant and cause diarrhea

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