31 terms

Tervisliku toitumise mõisted inglise keeles

Nutrition
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amino acids
chief components of protein; synthesized by the body or obtained from dietary sources
coenzyme
vitamin based organic compound that assists a particular enzyme in performing its role in regulating biochemical reactions
complex carbohydrates
carbohydrates composed of long molecular chains containing many saccharide units; starches; 'carb good guys'
consumer fraud
marketing of unreliable and ineffective services, products, or information under the guise of improving health
dehydration
abnormal depletion of fluids from the body; severe dehydration can lead to death; downward spiral
desirable weight
weight range deemed appropriate for persons of a specific sex, age, and frame size
diuretic drugs
drugs that aid the body in removing excess fluid
empty calories
Calories obtained from foods that lack most other important nutrients -- alcohol, candy, etc.
nutrient
elements in food that are required for the growth, repair, and regulation of body processes
enriched
process of returning to foods some of the nutritional elements (B vitamins and iron) removed during the process
enzymes
chemical substances that regulate physiological processes
fast foods
convenience foods; foods featured in a variety of restaurants, including hamburgers, pizza and tacos
fat density
percent of the total Calories in a food item derived from fat
caloric balance
caloric input equals caloric output; weight remains constant
Calories
units of heat (energy); specifically, 1 Calorie equals the heat required to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius
fiber
plant material that cannot be digested; found in cereal, fruits, and vegetables
food additives
chemical compounds that are intentionally or unintentionally added to our food
food supplements
nutrients taken in addition to those obtained through the diet: powdered protein, vitamins, mineral extracts, etc.
glucose
blood sugar; the body's primary source of energy
hypervitaminosis
excessive accumulation of vitamins within the body; associated with the fat-soluble vitamins
incomplete protein food
food that lacks one or more of the essential amino acids
legumes
peas and beans; plant sources high in the essential amino acids
metabolic rate
rate or intensity at which the body utilizes energy
minerals
chemical elements that serve as structural elements within body tissue or participate in physiological processes
nutrient density
quantity of selected nutrients in 1000 Calories of food
obesity
condition in which body weight exceeds desirable weight by more than 20%
overweight
condition in which body weight exceeds desirable weight by 1% to 19%
tropical oils
oils extracted from coconut, palm, and palm kernel that contain much higher levels of saturated fat than other vegetable oils
unbalanced diet
diet lacking adequate representation from each of the five food groups
underweight
condition in which body weight is below desirable weight
vitamins
organic compounds that facilitate the action of enzymes