Psych 2320: Midterm 1: Main Terms (Chapters 1-4)
Terms in this set (103)
Scientific inquiry that directly focuses on helping to solve or evaluate a specific real-world problem.
Examines the fundamental nature of phenomena. It is used as principles that underlie behaviour and mental processes, to test theories, and to gather information about the fundamental nature of behaviour. One of its major focuses is to determine if a theory can be applied to a real-world setting.
(As a method of knowing) Relying on other people as the source of our knowledge and beliefs. Relying on someone who is an expert on a topic or who is trustworthy is an example of this method of acquiring knowledge.
The conclusion that variable X caused variable Y.
Confirmation (Congeniality) Bias
The tendency to selectively seek information that supports ones values and views and avoid disconfirming information.
The ability to regulate research settings and procedures and to guide the application of scientific knowledge.
Remote causes; in a chain of interrelated events that lead to a given result, the events that are remote from the result. When psychologists examine causes of behaviour that are relatively removed from it, they are investigating distal causes.
Knowledge that is based on the senses-on experiences with the world.
A question or claim that, in principle, can be tested empirically through observation.
The process of acquiring knowledge directly through observation and experience; the philosophical viewpoint that all knowledge is derived from experience. Empiricism is unique from other ways of acquiring knowledge in that it relies on observation.
A criterion for judging testability; an assertion is testable if we can envision some type of empirical evidence that will reveal it to be false.
If a hypothesis is testable, it is possible to falsify it with empirical evidence. It is a criterion for determining whether a question of hypothesis os testable.
A tentative proposition about the causes or outcome of an event or, more generally, about how variables are related.
Defining a concept in terms of specific procedures (or "operations") used to represent it.
A professional journal in which reports submitted for publication first undergo a screening process nu several experts.
Proximal (or Proximate) Causes
Immediate causes; in a chain of interrelated events that lead to a given result, the events that are close to the result.
The use of logic and rational (i.e., intellectually sound) argument to reach a conclusion about how things "must be".
The process of repeating a study to determine whether the original finding will be upheld.
A process of systematically gathering and evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions and test ideas. It relies on
both reason and empiricism
as means of acquiring knowledge.
An outlook that questions that validity of claims before deciding whether to accept them. Skepticism leads to critical thinking.
(As a method of knowing) holding a belief simply because it is what has long been believed.
A set of formal statements that specifies how and why variables or events are related.
Any factor or attribute that can assume two or more values.
The method os systematically observing events or phenomena in order to acquire knowledge.
Theory versus Hypothesis
- A theory is broader than a hypothesis.
- A theory is more formal than a hypothesis.
- Unlike a hypothesis, a theory states both how and why variables are related.
One of the major goals of science in which hypothesis and theory testing occur.
A psychologist conducts a study to determine whether a treatment approach for depression that combines an antidepressant and cognitive therapy is more effective than cognitive therapy alone. What is the scientific goal of their research?
Once psychologist focuses on the affect of childhood maltreatment on depression in adults, while another psychologist focuses on the effect of recent work stress. What is the latter psychologist investigating?
A goal in science that a psychologist is fulfilling when he/she conducts a study investigating frequency, types, and perpetrators of aggression in children.
Valid Approaches to Achieving Objectivity in Psychology:
- Publishing findings in peer-reviewed journals
- Holding all empirical claims as tentative
- Specifying clear definitions of variables
Assumptions of Behaviour Made by Psychologists
- Human behaviour corresponds to patters
- It is possible to discover to causes of human behaviour
- There are explanations for patterns in behaviour
A college student reads a newspaper article claiming that watching TV leads to aggression. The student then proceeds to gather evidence about the source of the story to evaluate the quality of the evidence for the claim. What is this student relying on?
This is student is relying on authority to evaluate the claim.
Lay Empiricism versus Scientific Empiricism
One of the main ways that lay empiricism is different from systemic empiricism is that the latter relies on
A statement that can be verified through observations.
A psychologist who is studying aggression in children specifies beforehand that aggression will be indicated by spitting, biting, kicking, yelling, and punching. What is this an example of?
A psychologist is conducting a study investigating factors that lead to cooperation among individuals. Which goal of science are they fulfilling?
A psychologist develops a set of statements that explain how and why genes, maturation, and stress are related to schizophrenia. What is this an example of?
In order to infer that variable X causes change in variable Y, the following criteria must be met:
- Another variable Z is not responsible for the change in Y.
- The change in X occurs before the change in Y.
- When X changes, Y changes.
When a psychologist weighs the evidence and logic of a studies claim, they are engaging in this type of thinking.
Examples of Empirical Questions in Psychology:
- Are people attracted to other who are similar to or different from them?
- Does hostility lead to poorer mental health?
- Is intelligence inherited from ones parents?
An extraneous factor that covaries with the independent variable in such a way that we can no longer determine which one has caused the changes in the dependent variable; a confounding variable provides a potential alternative explanation for the results.
An analysis of the different types of content found within to represented by a set of data.
Cross-Sectional Research (or One-Shot Correlational Study)
A descriptive research design in which each person in the study participates on one occasion and all variables are measured at that time; in
, a study in which participants of different ages are compared at the same point in time.
Using a general principle to reach a more specific conclusion. When researchers derive their hypothesis from a particular theory, they are relying on deductive reasoning.
In an experiment, the behaviour or outcome that the researcher measures to determine whether the independent variable has produced an effect. In a
between two variables,
the dependent variable is the presumed effect
Descriptive (or Nonexperimental) Research
A research method in which researchers measure variables nit of not manipulate them.
Statistics that organize and summarize a set of data.
A statistical measure of the strength of a relation between two variables. In experiments, effect sizes
measures the strength of a treatment effect
Evidence-Based Treatments (EBTs)
Interventions that scientifically controlled studies have demonstrated to be effective in treating specific conditions.
A research method in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, attempts to control extraneous factors, and then measures how the manipulated variables affect participants responses.
The generalizability of the findings beyond the circumstances of the present study. It is the degree to which a researcher can generalize the findings of a study to circumstances or situations different from those used in the study.
A study in which researchers manipulate an independent variable in a
and exercise some control over extraneous factors.
Research that takes place in a real-world ("field") setting.
manipulated variable in the experiment
; a factor that the researcher manipulates, or systematically varies. In a
between two variables, it is
presumed causal factor
Using specific factors to reach a general conclusion or general principle.
Statistics that allow researchers to draw conclusions about a population on the basis of data from a sample.
The degree to which we can be confident that a study demonstrated that one variable had a causal effect on another variable.
Law of Parsimony
A guiding rule stating that explanations should use a minimum number of principles necessary to account for the greatest number of facts.
A research design in which the same participants are tested across different time periods (i.e., data gathered on the same individuals or groups in two or more occasions over time).
of a distribution of scores
of a distribution of scores
A statistical procedure for combining the results of different studies that examine the same topic.
occurring score in a distribution of scores.
The specific procedures (i.e., the specific "operations") used to measure or manipulate a variable in a particular study; refers to
defining a variable in terms of the procedures used to measure or manipulate it
All the cases or observations of interest in a given study
Research that seeks to achieve a relatively holistic or thematic description and understanding of behaviour, primarily through the
nonstatistical analysis of data
A statistic that describes the highest and lowest scores in a distribution; it can also be expressed as the distance between these terms.
A subset of cases of observations from a population
Sequential Research Design
A research design in which several cohorts are tests
The square root of the variance; the standard deviation measure how much the scores in a distribution are spread out in relation to their mean as expressed in the original unit of measurement.
Describes a result that is unlikely to be due to chance.
The average of the squared deviations about the mean; variance measures
how much the scores in a distribution are spread out in relation to their mean
Refers to sources of research ideas from an accidental discovery of an important phenomena.
PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES
Unlike PsycARTICLES, it is a scientific data base that is much larger and includes books and dissertations as well as articles. If s researcher is interested in finding complete online versions of articles from top journals in the field of psychology, it would be best if they used PsycARTICLES to search for articles.
The section of a research article that discusses findings of a stud in greater depth and in less statistical terms.
Based on the numerous research finding that show depression is associated with faulty beliefs about ones self and others, a psychologist predict that negative beliefs about ones self leads to depression. What is this an example of?
This is an example of relying on inductive reasoning to form a hypothesis.
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research
One of the major differences is that
qualitative research is characterized by the identification of major themes
Field Experiment Research and Validity
Likely to be high in both internal and external validity.
In order to test the stability of intelligence scores over time, a researcher administers an intelligence test to the same group of children at ages 5, 10, and 15. What is this an example of?
This is an example of a longitudinal research design
What are three fundamental characteristics of experimental research?
1. Manipulating the I.V.
2. Controlling for confounding variables
3. Measuring the D.V.
What two major articles are found when conducting a search for articles in psychology?
Research and review articles
Methods Section of Research Article
The methods section of a research article discusses a study's participants, procedures, and overall design.
A group of researchers are using PsycINFO to look for articles related to their study in sex differences in children's play. How can they narrow down their search?
- Use the
- Specify the age group they're interested in studying
- Request articles only from peer-reviewed journals
Integrates findings from several articles on the same topic in a nonstatistical manner.
Research that measures variables rather than manipulating the variables.
Allows a researcher to have the most confidence that the manipulation of the IV is responsible for the change in the DV.
A factor that provides an alternative explanation as to why a study found that one variable was associated with another variable .
A researcher who is interested in the effects of serotonin seeking college students drinking includes students only attending a college or university, in the northeast region of the US as participants. What is the scientific term for this group of participants?
When a theory uses a minimum number of principles to account for the greatest number of facts, it has the characteristic of being parsimonious.
American Psychological Association (APA) Ethics Code
A document that describes general ethical principles and specific ethical standards to guide psychologists professional behaviour
American Welfare Act
A US federal law that regulates the use of warm-blooded vertebrates (except, mice, rats, and birds) in scientific research.
In a study, the fact that the participants identity is unknown, even to the researcher.
Evidence being provided by a participant of being willing to participate in a study even though the participant might be not able to comprehend the details of the study to the degree listed on a consent form.
Describes participants in a proposed study that involves more than minimal risk.
An ethics code that provides the foundation for US federal regulations governing research on human subjects
Beneficence, Principle of
A principle in the APA ethics code stating that psychologists should strive to benefit those with whom they work
An accomplice of the investigator who is trained to act a certain way
In a study, the fact that participants identities will not be released without their consent, and data from the study will be reported in a way that does not identify individual participants.
(In a study) Occurs when knowledge, serves, or other experiences intended for one group are unintentionally received by another group (e.g., when future participants learn information from previous participants that they are not supposed to know until after the data collection in complete).
A conversation with a participant, after the data are gathered from that participant, in which the researcher conveys additional information about the study.
The intentional withholding by researchers of information from potential participants that might influence their decision to provide informed consent (
) or to intentionally mislead participants about some aspect of the study (
A system of moral principles and standards
Fidelity, Principle of
A principle in the APA ethics code stating that psychologists should behave in a trustworthy manner.
The principle that prospective participants have the right to make a voluntary, informed decision about whether or not to participate in a study.