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FSHN EXAM 4

STUDY
PLAY
• Free Radicals
Answer: are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke
• Which of the following are required components of antioxidant enzyme systems?
Answer: antioxidant minerals
• Which mineral can function as an antioxidant?
Answer: selenium
• The doctor recently told Julie that she is anemic. Julie should consume______with her iron supplement to increase its absorption
Answer: a glass of orange juice
• Which of the following foods are the richest sources of vitamin E?
Answer: mayonnaise, vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds
• Most of the body's vitamin A is stored in
Answer: liver
• About 90% of vitamin E is stored in_______
Answer: adipose tissue
• Which of the following terms is synonymous with the word malignant?
Answer: cancer
• Diseases that cause the malabsorption of fat can result in the deficieny of_______
Answer: vitamin A
• How do antioxidant minerals stabilize free radicals?
Answer: break down and convert them to less damaging molecules
• Which of the following foods is high in phosphorus?
Answer: meat
• What medication is effective in treating osteoporosis because of its estrogen like properties?
Answer: selective estrogen receptor modulators
• How can we increase our absorption of dietary magnesium?
Answer: eat a high-protein diet
• Which of the following are good sources of magnesium?
Answer: green leafy vegetables
• If a healthy individual were to consume too much calcium from the diet, which of the following is MOST likely to occur?
Answer: the would begin to produce kidney stones
• Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to low bone density in the adult years?
Answer: early onset of menarche in females
• Which of the following does NOT describe a role that calcitonin plays when blood calcium levels are elevated?
Answer: calcitonin stimulates the action of vitamin D
• Which of the following techniques can assess the risk of fracture?
Answer: duel energy x-ray absorptiometry
• What is the primary reason osteoporosis incidence in the United States is expected to increase?
Answer: increased longevity of the population
• One of the side effects of using bisphosphonates is______
Answer: abdominal pain
• Which of the following foods are good sources of magnesium?
Answer: green leafy vegetables
• The hormone that assists in maintain blood calcium levels by stimulating the activation of vitamin D is______
Answer: parathyroid hormone (PTH)
• Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in our body?
Answer: calcium
• The primary, active form of vitamin D in the human body is______
Answer: calcitriol
• Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the______gland
Answer: thyroid
• Which of the following is FALSE about trabecular bone?
Answer: comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton
• The average person will absorb no more than _______mg of calcium at one time
Answer: 500
• Which of the following is NOT a function of calcium?
Answer: promotes osteoclasts to break down bone
• Vitamin D toxicity is associated with_______
Answer: supplements
• Marie is 55 years old and just had her first DXA assessment. The results indicated that she has a T-score of -1.5. What does her T-score indicate?
Answer: Compared to a 30-year old healthy adult, she has low bone mass
• Federal guidelines in the U.S. specify that school lunches must contain no more than _______from saturated fat
Answer: 10
• The absorption of vitamin______increases in older adults
Answer: A
• On average, Americans have life expectancy that extends into the
Answer: late seventies
• Obesity in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the______percentile
Answer: 95th
• The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the intake of fruit juice be limited to_______day for children 1-6 years of age
6
• What are dental caries?
Answer: cavities
• Approximately how long would a person's life be prolonged if he or she did not start consuming a Calorie restricted diet at the age of 55 years?
Answer: 4 months
• All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals EXCEPT
Answer: perspiration as we age
• What nutrient is added to municipal water supplies to promote healthy teeth formation?
Answer: fluoride
• All of the following are a choking hazard for children EXCEPT
Answer: yogurt
The doctor has recently told Julie that she is anemic. Julie should consume ________ with her iron supplement to increase its absorption
Answer: a glass of orange juice
• Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the mineral selenium?
Answer: Selenium is present only in foods of animal origin
• About 90% of vitamin E is stored in ________
Answer: adipose tissue
• Which of the following cooking methods will likely destroy the most vitamin C in food?
Answer: boiling
• The light sensitive pigment found in rod cells formed by retinal and opsin is ________.
Answer: rhodopsin
• Which of the following hormones requires selenium for its synthesis?
Answer: thyroxinc
• A chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons is ________.
Answer: oxidation
• Where does the body store selenium?
Answer: in amino acids in the body
• Consuming even moderately excessive doses of vitamin C supplements would be most harmful to individuals suffering from ________
Answer: hemochromatosis
• Which of the following foods would be the best dietary source of preformed vitamin A?
Answer: eggs
• How do antioxidant minerals stabilize free radicals?
Answer: break down and convert them to less damaging molecules
• Diseases that cause the malabsorption of fat can result in a deficiency of ________
Answer: vitamin D
• At what stage in the development of cancer do the cancerous cells grow out of control and invade surrounding tissues?
Answer: progression
• All of the following are signs and symptoms of cancer EXCPET
Answer: unexplained weight gain
• Free radicals
Answer: are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke
The deficiency disease associated with vitamin C is ________
Answer: scurvy
• Vitamin K's primary role in the body is_________
Answer: blood clotting
• Vitamin D toxicity is associated with
Answer: supplements
• What medication is effective in treating osteoporosis because of its estrogen-like properties?
Answer: selective estrogen receptor modulators
• Vitamin K serves as a(n) ________ to various enzymes involved in the coagulation of blood.
Answer: coenzyme
• In addition to dietary sources, vitamin K is produced in our
Answer: large intestine
• The spongy bone that is found within the ends of long bones is called ________
Answer: trabecular
• The average person will absorb no more than ________ mg of calcium at one time.
Answer: 500
• Which of the following is FALSE about the trabecular bone?
Answer: comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton
• Which of the following organs is responsible for the synthesis of vitamin D?
Answer: all of the above
• Bone ________ refers to the two-step process in which bone tissue is recycled.
Answer: remodeling
• At what age does bone resorption generally begin to occur more rapidly than bone formation?
Answer: 40
• Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the ________ gland.
Answer: thyroid
• Which of the following is our primary dietary source of vitamin D?
Answer: milk
• Insufficient vitamin D during adulthood is associated with ________
Answer: osteomalacia
Individuals who have diseases that result in the malabsorption of ________ are at risk for a vitamin D deficiency.
Answer: fat
• Which of the following would NOT be good advice to offer someone who is selecting a calcium supplement?
Answer: take your calcium supplement on an empty stomach to increase absorption
• In the elderly a ________ deficiency can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell.
Answer: zinc
• All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals EXCEPT
Answer: perspiration increases as we age
• Federal guidelines specify that school lunches must provide ________ of the 1989 RDAs for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and energy.
Answer: 1/3
• The Nutrition Services Incentive Program (former Elderly Nutrition Program) provides all of the following EXCEPT
Answer: coupons to use to purchase foods in the grocery store
• Which of the following is associated with the premature closure of the epiphyseal plate?
Answer: malnutrition
Which of the following is NOT related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?
Answer: iron utilization slows down
• How much fat is recommended for a preschooler?
Answer: 25%-35% of total energy
The fastest growing age subgroup in the United States today is
Answer: > 85-year-olds
• Peak bone mass is typically achieved in ________
Answer: late teens and early twenties
• Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning vitamin C?
Answer: Smokers should consumer less Vitamin C than non-smokers
• All of the following are good sources of vitamin C EXCEPT
Answer: milk
• What is an exchange reaction?
Answer: two-part metabolic reaction that involves a loss and gain of electrons
• Which of the following increases the RDA for vitamin C?
Answer: smoking cigarettes
Which of the following foods are the richest sources of vitamin E?
Answer: mayonnaise, vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds
Which of the following is FALSE concerning carotenoids?
Answer: Beta-carotene is the only carotenoid that functions as an antioxidant.
Most of the body's vitamin A is stored in the ________
Answer: liver
• Symptoms of a vitamin C deficiency include ________
Answer: bleeding gums and loose teeth
Both Keshan disease and Kashin-Beck disease are associated with a ________ deficiency.
Answer: selenium
• Beta-carotene is a precursor of ________
Answer: retinol
• Beta-carotene is a precursor of ________
Answer: retinol
• About 90% of vitamin E is stored in ________
Answer: adipose tissue
• Which of the following are rich sources of vitamin C?
Answer: green and red peppers
• The light sensitive pigment found in rod cells formed by retinal and opsin is ________.
Answer: rhodopsin
• Which of the following diseases has NOT been linked to free radical damage?
Answer: type 1 diabetes
• Which of the following are required components of antioxidant enzyme systems?
Answer: antioxidant minerals
• Grandma Jane takes anticoagulant medication daily to prevent blood clots. Which vitamin must she avoid taking in excess of the RDA, as it could interact with the medication causing uncontrollable bleeding?
Answer: Vitamin K
• Assuming equal serving sizes, which of the following foods would be the poorest source of calcium?
Answer: cheddar cheese
• The majority of the body's magnesium is found in the ________
Answer: bones
• Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to low bone density in the adult years?
An swer: onset of menarche in females
Most of the body's phosphorus is stored in ________
Answer: the skeleton
In which phase of a woman's life cycle is bone loss the greatest?
Answer: menopause
• Individuals who have diseases that result in the malabsorption of ________ are at risk for a vitamin D deficiency.
Answer: fat
• When does bone growth and modeling start?
Answer: during fetal development
• How can we increase our absorption of dietary magnesium?
Answer: eat a high-protein diet
• In addition to proper growth and development, bone remodeling is critical in maintaining ________
Answer: blood calcium levels
• Vitamin K's primary role in the body is ________
Answer: blood clotting
• The most common site of fracture in an individual suffering from osteoporosis is the
Answer: hip
• Insufficient vitamin D during adulthood is associated with ________
Answer: osteomalacia
• Which of the following does NOT describe a role that calcitonin plays when blood calcium levels are elevated?
Answer: calcitonin stimulates the action of Vitamin D
• Which of the following will NOT help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?
Answer: use food as a reward for healthful behaviors
The RDA for ________ decreases with age.
Answer: iron
• For proper growth and development, toddlers should consume ________ percent of their total daily energy intake as fat.
Answer: 30-40
Which of the following is NOT related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?
Answer: iron utilization slows down
Which of the following is NOT a reason that vitamin D and calcium supplements are recommended for elderly individuals?
Answer: absorption of calcium and vitamin D is reduced as we age
The leading cause of death among high-school youths is ________.
Answer: automobile accidents
• Peak bone mass is typically achieved in ________
Answer: late teens and early twenties
• Overweight in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ________ percentile.
Answer: 85th
• All of the following are characteristic of adolescent eating habits EXCEPT
Answer: regular consumption of three meals per day.
On average, Americans have a life expectancy that extends into the ________
Answer: late seventies
• Which of the following will NOT help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?
Answer: food as a reward for healthful behaviors
• Adolescent food patterns are strongly influenced by all of these EXCEPT
Answer: parents
• In the elderly a ________ deficiency can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell.
Answer: zinc
• A reduced production of gastric secretions often seen in older adults can result in
Answer: a reduced absorption of calcium
• Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet?
Answer: Calorie Restriction results in decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass.
• The development of the ________ system is particularly dependent on adequate consumption of fat during the toddler years.
Answer: nervous
• Adolescent acne is caused by
• Answer: hormonal changes
• In addition to proper growth and development, bone remodeling is critical in maintaining ________
Answer: blood calcium levels
The process called bone ________ determines the shape of bones
Answer: modeling
• Which of the following is NOT a function of vitamin E?
Answer: improving the absorption of vitamin C if dietary intake is low
• Fluorosis is associated with ________
Answer: consuming too much fluoride
• Which of the following is a poor source of dietary magnesium?
Answer: refined grain products
• All of the following are physiological changes that typically occur with aging EXCEPT decreased
Answer: fat mass
• Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionist, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of ________
Answer: anorexia nervosa
• Which of the following symptoms is characteristic of bulimia nervosa?
Answer: episodes of extreme overeating followed by purging
• Which of the following is FALSE concerning calcium?
Answer: ninety-nine percent of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue
• Cindy J. is 63 years old and at risk for osteoporosis. Which of the following dietary supplements would be the MOST helpful to minimize bone loss?
Answer: calcium and vitamin D
Bone ________ refers to the two-step process in which bone tissue is recycled
Answer: remodeling
• Which of the following is our primary dietary source of vitamin D?
Answer: milk
• The total amount of energy needed per day for any given age is called the ________ energy requirement.
Answer: estimated
• Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding free radicals?
Answer: our body has no mechanism to combat free radicals
• Which of the following psychiartric disoders causes the most deaths among women?
Answer: anorexia nervosa
• The most common nutrient deficiency in young children is caused by inadequate ________ consumption.
Answer: iron
• A deficiency of ________ can result in erythrocyte hemolysis, leading to anemia
Answer: vitamin E
• Which of the following is NOT an appropriate weight control recommendation for an overweight 11-year-old?
Answer: decrease calorie intake by 1000 calories a day
• In women, the risk of osteoporosis increases with menopause due to the loss of the hormone ________
Answer: estrogen
• The individual with the highest risk of developing a vitamin D deficiency is a/n ________
Answer: elderly institutionalized adult who consumes no milk and receives little or no sun exposure
• Which of the following nutrients requires the most frequent consumption to assure adequate body stores?
Answer: vitamin C
• A T-score between +1 and —1 on a DXA signifies ________
Answer: normal bone density
• The electrolyte imbalances that are often seen with eating disorders can result in
Answer: results in irregular heart beat and failure
• Which of the following does NOT increase the risk of developing osteoporosis?
Answer: moderate alcohol consumption
Which of the following is NOT associated with binge-eating disorder?
Answer: purging
• Where do humans obtain vitamin D?
Answer: sunlight
• All of the following factors can inhibit the synthesis of vitamin D EXCEPT
Answer: fair skin
Which of the following does NOT describe a role that calcitonin plays when blood calcium levels are elevated?
Answer: calcitonin stimulates the action of vitamin D
Which of the following BEST describes the "Milk Matters" campaign?
Answer: government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy foods
• Which of the following BEST describes why the body reduces nonvital body functions in untreated anorexia nervosa?
Answer: the body needs to conserve energy
• Which of the following does NOT describe a characteristic associated with muscle dysmorphia?
Answer: purging by the use of laxative and or vomiting at least two times a day
The most critical role that vitamin A plays in the human body is _______
Answer: maintaining healthy vision
• The smallest physical units of a substance are ________
Answer: molecules
• Which of the following sports is frequently associated with its female athletes being at risk for developing the female athlete triad?
Answer: gymnastics
• Formed in our bones, hydroxyapatite crystals are mineral complexes comprised of calcium and ________
Answer: phosphorus
The majority of our body's fluoride is stored in ________
Answer: the skeleton
• Which of the following is NOT associated with the female athlete triad?
Answer: hypertension
• Dowager's hump is one characteristic of
Answer: osteoporosis
• In which of the following sports are male athletes at greater risk for developing bulimia nervosa?
Answer: wrestling
• Which of the following correctly describes "milk displacement"?
Answer: the selection of low-nutrient beverages (eg., soda) in place of milk
Growth acceleration in adolescence is primarily driven by
Answer: hormonal changes
• Janie is four years old. What serving size of green beans would you recommend for her?
Answer: 4 tablespoons
• Maria is a 3-year-old toddler and weighs 34 pounds. How many grams of protein should she consume each day?
Answer: 13 grams
• The most powerful and abundant form of vitamin E is ________
Answer: alpha-tocopherol
Newborn infants receive a single injection of vitamin K at birth due to the fact that ________
Answer: newborns do not have enough bacteria in their small intestine to make vitamin K
Which of the following is NOT a function of calcium?
Answer: promotes osteoclasts to break down bone
• According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Answer: engaging in at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity can promote longevity
• All of the following are associated with developing toddlers' healthy eating habits EXCEPT
Answer: rewarding meal completion with dessert
• The most common form of cancer in the United States is cancer of the ________
Answer: skin
• A chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons is ________
Answer: oxidation
• In an atom, the nucleus has a positive charge, and the electrons orbiting around the nucleus have a ________ charge.
Answer: negative
• One of the side effects of using bisphosphonates is _______
Answer: abdominal pain
• All of the following are signs and symptoms of cancer EXCEPT
Answer: unexplained weight gain
• Phosphorus consumption has increased approximately 10-15% over the past 30 years. This is largely due to the increased consumption of ________
Answer: processed foods
• Taking vitamin E supplements along with ________ can cause uncontrollable bleeding.
Answer: anticoagulants
• When blood calcium levels fall, which of the following does NOT occur?
Answer: vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium from the intestines
• Bone cells that are responsible for bone resorption are called ________
Answer: osteoclasts
Cooking meat at high temperatures can result in the formation of ________
Answer: heterocyclic amines
• What type of calcium supplement contains the highest amount of calcium per dose?
Answer: calcium carbonate
• What type of calcium supplement contains the highest amount of calcium per dose?
Answer: secretive consumption of large amounts of food in a short period of time
• The cartilage that is located at the end of long bones that closes when growth ceases is called the ________ plate.
Answer: epiphyseal
• Carbon and hydrogen are two examples of ________
Answer: atoms
• In older adults, which of the following is a mineral important to a healthy immune system and wound healing?
Answer: zinc
• Which water-soluble vitamin can regenerate vitamin E after it has been oxidized?
Answer: vitamin C
• Examples of antioxidant enzyme systems include superoxide dismutase, ________, and glutathione peroxidase.
Answer: catalase
• The cartilage that is located at the end of long bones that closes when growth ceases is called the ________ plate.
Answer: epiphyseal
• All of the following describe characteristics of the female athlete triad EXCEPT
Answer: diabetes mellitus
• Metabolic effects of CR reported in several human studies include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
Answer: a decreased fat mass and lean body mass