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In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce

urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions.

The renal threshold for glucose is approximately ________ mg/dl.


A glomerulus is

a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle

Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures:

1) blood hydrostatic pressure
2) capsular hydrostatic pressure
3) capsular colloid osmotic pressure
4) blood colloid osmotic pressure
5) urinary bladder hydrostatic pressure

1, 2, and 4 are correct.

The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the

nephron loop (loop of Henle).

Each of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree, except the ________ system.


The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney.

1. afferent arteriole
2. arcuate artery
3. interlobar artery
4. renal artery
5. glomerulus
6. cortical radiate artery
7. efferent arteriole
8. peritubular capillary

The proper order in which blood passes through these vessels is

4, 3, 2, 6, 1, 5, 7, 8.

The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the

distal convoluted tubule.

The detrusor muscle

compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra.

The process of filtration occurs at

the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule.

Renal blood flow is about

1 liter/min.

Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called


The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is

absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water.

An inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is

renal failure.

Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except


A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to

absence of ADH.

Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the

renal corpuscle

The outermost layer of the kidney is the

fibrous capsule.

Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate correctly the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: CsHP is capsular hydrostatic pressure.)

FP = BHP - (CsHP + BCOP)

Urine is eliminated through the


The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the

renal pelvis

Changes that occur in the urinary system with aging include all of the following, except

increased sensitivity to ADH.

Each of the following organs is part of the urinary system, except the


Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except

stem cell movements.

________ is an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys.


The process of filtration is driven by

blood hydrostatic pressure.

Agents that increase urine excretion are known as


Antidiuretic hormone

increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?

final urine enters here

The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is

secretion of drugs.

If a urine sample is distinctly yellow in color, which of the following will be true?

It will contain large amounts of urobilin.

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