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Psychology Paper 3
Terms in this set (95)
A type of purposive sampling where participants in the study are asked to recruit more participants through their own social networks.
When participants are chosen due to availability. It may have a purposive component.
Credibility and Trustworthiness
This equivalent to internal validity. It judges the overall quality of the research by questioning whether the research measures and records what is intended. It represents a "true picture", as it is used to ensure that the viewpoint of the participant is being represented.
The use of different methods in order to collect data. Also called inter-coder triangulation.
The comparison of data from multiple sources (observations, photos, MRIs).
The use of more than one researcher to collect and/or analyze the data.
The use of several and perhaps competing theories to analyze data. This does not mean you need to have an initial theory.
Researchers reflect on their own role in all phases of the research. They must reflect on what they're studying and why they made particular decisions. Reflexivity is recorded using a decision trail and all information that may affect the data is recorded.
The documentation of all decisions made related to collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, as well as participant selection. This acts as a protection of credibility and trustworthiness.
Provides information about the researcher and the researcher's relationship to the topic or participants. It acts as a critical self-evaluation.
Provides documentation of the decisions concerning the design of the experiment, the choice of sample, the analytical technique. This is done through the decision trail.
Refers to quantitative research
Refers to qualitative research
What are some characteristics of quantitative/nomothetic research?
It focuses on larger groups and searches for general laws of human nature
It is numbers and cause/effect driven
Validity and reliability are the primary concerns
Primary goal is to predict and control human nature
What are some characteristics of qualitative/idiographic research?
It is small-group oriented or individual
It's in depth, not superficial
The data is text driven
It is non-scientific/non-imperial
Credibility and trustworthiness are primary concerns
Primary goal is understanding behavior
What is the researcher's role in interpreting the meaning of data during qualitative research?
The researcher's role in interpreting the meaning of data is more centralized (for better or worse).
What are the three techniques used in qualitative research?
Case studies, observations, and interviews
What are the 2 types of intentions for cases studies?
Intrinsic and instrumental
What are some characteristics of a case study?
Most are longitudinal in nature and in-depth
Usually cannot be replicated
It involves a collection of methods (observations, interviews, experiments)
Takes advantage of naturally occurring irregularities
What are the different types of observation?
What is participant observation?
When the researcher is participating in the behavior as a part of the group.
What are the strengths of a participant observation?
Not artificial like interviews as they occur in a natural habitat.
What are the weaknesses of a participant observation?
You may report on them differently due to your own biases
Recording the data is difficult
What is non-participant observation?
When the researcher is observing the group, but not participating in their behavior.
What is a naturalistic observation?
When the researcher views the participants in the setting they naturally behave.
What is a controlled observation?
An observation conducted in a lab setting.
What is overt observation?
When you know you are being observed
What is covert observation?
When you don't know you are being observed
What are the 3 types of interviews?
Semi-structured, focus groups, narrative interviews (unstructured)
What is a semi-structured interview?
When the interviewer and respondents engage in a formal interview using an interview guide, allowing for a direct insight into their point of view.
What is an interview guide?
This is a list of questions and topics that the interview develops prior to the interview to compile a list of topics that need to be covered during the conversation, usually in a specific order. It is topical based and contains options for follow ups.
What are topical trajectories?
These are topics which may arise during a semi-structured interview that stray from the interview guide, but the researcher feels it is important to expand upon.
What are the strengths of a semi-structured interview?
Enables researcher to intervene and clarify
Pursue themes identified before and during interview
Compatible with many forms of data analysis
Quick and convenient to set up
What are the weaknesses of a semi-structured interview?
Formal nature means low ecological validity
Data can be voluminous
Prior planning may interfere with interview as the researcher may expect and encourage certain answers in a non-verbal way, therefore effecting the credibility of the data
What are some characteristics of a focus group?
Typically consists of a group of 6-10 people where the researcher acts as facilitator
The researcher introduces the issue and directs/monitors the discussion
Participants are encouraged to interact with one another
Questions are often open-ended and conversation is mostly informal
What are the strengths of a focus group?
Data is collected by multiple subjects, so efficient
More natural setting, so ecologically valid
Free discussion promotes consensus
What are the weaknesses of a focus group?
Personal issues may not be shared freely due to social desirability bias, dominant people in the conversation, or due to the sensitive nature of the topic
Danger of group conformity
What are narrative interviews based on?
They are based on the assumption that humans are storytellers, thus the responsibility is on the participant to talk.
What are some characteristics of a narrative interview?
There is an intentional use of pregnant pauses to encourage the participant to speak
Usually based on broad issues
Can be in the form of a life-story interview or situation
What goes on in narrative interviews?
Researchers analyze the details and structure of the ways people talk about themselves in their historical and cultural context. This is because they believe a fuller account can be given without questions, particularly with sensitive topics.
What are the strengths of a narrative interview?
People can talk freely
Provides in-depth understanding of how people construct meaning in their lives
Can be used with all people
What are the weaknesses of a narrative interview?
May contain a lot of worthless data
Ethical issues if talking about traumatic events as you have the least control
What should be considered before an interview?
The type of interview
Topic of investigation
How it will be recorded
Where it will take place
Who the interviewers are
Briefing and informed consent
Test the recorder
What is a purposive sample?
When people are chosen because they have salient characacteristics that represent what you are investigating
What are the strengths of a snowball sample method?
It's easy and efficient
What are the weaknesses of a snowball sample method?
May suffer from group think, you lose control, and it's the least generalizable
What are the different ways in which interviews can be recorded?
Transcribed on the spot
What considerations should be taken into account when picking a location for the interview?
Shouldn't be intimidating or offensive to the group
What are some considerations to take into account when choosing an interviewer?
To reduce researcher bias it is best to have someone else conduct the interview
Needs to be done with sensitivity towards your subjects
Need to be trained at recognizing emotional trouble/trauma
Need to have an understanding of verbal and non-verbal communication to reduce interviewer effects
What is the verbatim transcription method?
Transcribing things word for word
What is the post-modern transcription method?
Transcribing every word, utterance, non-verbal signal, and anything else that indicates communication so that in-depth data is gathered.
What are the ethical considerations to take into account before an interview?
Need to ensure the protection of the participant.
What should be considered during an interview?
Set up a rapport with the interviewee prior to the questions to ensure they are comfortable enough to respond and there will be no ethical violations
Need to be an active listener
Need to show up on time
Need to dress appropriately
How can interviewer be an active listener?
By providing your attention to the interviewee in verbal or non-verbal ways (nodding) and rephrasing what they have said to you.
What should be considered after an interview?
Participants must be debriefed for ethical reasons and so they are informed
Transcribe using the method you have already decided on
Destroy the tapes when you are done to protect confidentiality and anonymity
When the participant reads and then comments on the research to ensure it reflects their viewpoint, thus increasing credibility and trustworthiness
Why do case studies have a high level of credibility and trustworthiness?
Because you have multiple opportunities to check for this throughout the longitudinal study
What are the two primary ethical considerations?
Protect the participants
Protect the sanctity of the research (credibility and trustworthiness)
What are ethical considerations when conducting case studies?
Risk of participant identification is higher to do uniqueness of behavior
Participant may be negatively effected due to longitudinal nature
May develop personal relationships
Not always informed consent
Exploitation of participants
Researcher/confirmation bias through only selecting data that supports theories
What are ethical considerations when conducting interviews?
Unclear understanding of the topic by the interviewee
Confidentiality as friends, etc. may be interviewed, thus permission is needed and you cannot change their life
Signs of discomfort due to the obligation to avoid mental stress
Avoid questions designed to support theories
What are ethical considerations when conducting observations?
Informed consent (covert naturalistic)
Protection from harm in regards to researchers/confederates too
Influence of natural behaviors as you cannot affect the behaviors of the group (for better or worse)
Researcher bias due to interpretation of notes after the fact, thus need to use triangulation and reflexivity
Research empathy for group or behavior
What are the strengths of a case study?
Stimulates new research
Insight into social processes in a group
Possibility to investigate cases not set up in research laboratories
What are the weaknesses of a case study?
Effects of social desirability
What are the strengths of an interview?
In-depth understanding of people and their lives
Further research from experiments and observation
Chance to follow up in real time
What are the weaknesses of an interview?
Social desirability (interviewee)
What are the strengths of an observation?
First hand information in naturally occurring situations
No researcher influence (covert observation)
Investigation of group dynamics
What are the weaknesses of an observation?
Doesn't explore opinions and beliefs because there is no follow up
Limited number of settings
What are the components used to analyze a psychological process?
When the findings from qualitative research studies can be applied to populations outside the population of the study. This is not the goal, but is sometimes applicable.
Why is it difficult to generalize qualitative research?
Because it normally involves small samples that are not selected to be statistically representative.
When the findings of the study can be applied to settings outside the setting of the study. It is also known as transferability.
What are the three types of generalizability?
When theoretical concepts derived from the study can be used to develop further theory. This theory is usually generated after the research is complete and may contribute to wider social theory/policy which is tested using quantitative research.
Why is reflexivity important?
It is important because qualitative research involves the researcher being aware of their own biases, and therefore need to account for them. Thus, it is linked to credibility and trustworthiness as it demonstrates self-awareness and critical evaluation of how bias could affect research.
How are credibility and trustworthiness measured?
They are measured by reflexivity, triangulation, cross-checking facts, peer review, and a decision trail
When does researcher bias usually occur?
It mainly occurs when the researcher pays less attention to the participant responses and more to their own beliefs (self-serving bias) when recording and interpreting. This can be alleviated through participant reflexivity.
What are the 2 purposes of inductive content analysis?
To deal with and manage the massive amounts of material that come out of qualitative research
To pull meaningful themes out of the research, particularly emergent themes
Where is inductive content analysis used?
In interview transcripts, case studies, or observations.
How does inductive content analysis work?
It involves the use of classification codes to reduce volumes of recorded material into manageable and hierarchically-structured (themes and sub-themes) data to identify patterns and gain insights. It analyzes both verbal and non-verbal communication and is a subjective process.
What is interpretive phenomenological analysis?
It is a type of ICA only used with interviews (usually semi-structured interviews). It is used to describe how themes relate by placing them in clusters and hierarchies, with a goal of gaining insight into how an individual perceives information.
What does interpretive phenomenological analysis involve?
Coding by placing information into specific categories, working through interview transcripts, producing a summary table of themes and details (reflexivity).
What is the purpose of triangulation?
It is used to increase the credibility and overall trustworthiness of qualitative research. Triangulation is based on the assumption that by comparing data from the same method or studies in the same setting it is possible to overcome biases.
What is the goal of triangulation?
To collect richer data through a combination of various methods.
Investigator Triangulation / Inter-Observer Reliability
Using more than one observer to make sure things are done properly.
What does reactivity refer to?
Participant expectations as participants alter the way they behave in a study because they are aware of being observed.
What are examples of participant expectations / reactivity?
Placebo and Hawthorne effects
Social desirability bias
Non-verbal cues from researcher
When the researcher comes into the investigation with preconceived ideas
When the participant does not agree with the interpretation of data, which may be due to the sensitive nature of the data.
What is grounded theory analysis?
It is an inductive content analysis approach to data analysis of observational research. It is a form of content theory analysis.
What does grounded theory analysis do?
It creates a picture as the data is collected and interpreted. It goes further than IPA in that the final product is a written account based on all elements, including a theoretical framework in which to place the phenomenon studied.
What is important in grounded theory analysis?
The environment that the behavior is taking place is important
What is the trade off between observation and interviews?
In observations the data is harder to gather as you cannot impact the group.
What are the steps of grounded theory analysis?
Full description of what is studied (environment, people, dialogue, analytical diary for covert observation)
Classification of notes into themes and sub-themes, coded and arrange hierarchically
Interpretation including elements to support and question the findings/proposal
Researchers follow up with the observed or may confirm their findings with the other researchers, which promotes credibility and trustworthiness, but is not always possible due to the nature of the group
What does grounded theory analysis produce?
It produces a rich account based on all elements, including a theoretical framework for understanding the phenomenon. The categories ground the theoretical explanation.
What makes grounded theory analysis doable?
Time sampling: Observations at regular time intervals
Event sampling: Tally each time a behavior occurs
Point sampling: Focus on one individual at a time for a set period of time
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