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Foundations of Reading - NC Pearson
Terms in this set (212)
words that identify the whos, wheres, and whats in language; name people, places, and things
name specific, one-of-a-kind items; always begin with capital letters
ex. George, Godzilla
identify general varieties; only require capitalization if they start the sentence of are part of a title
type of noun; you can see, hear, smell, taste, or feel the item
type of noun; you cannot experience the item with any of your five senses
type of noun; can be singular or plural
ex. Godzilla ate three PIZZAS, two delivery BOYS, and six parked CARS.
type of noun; has only one singular form
ex. After overindulging at Antonio's, Godzilla got severe INDIGESTION. (indigestion can't be plural)
type of noun; names groups
ex. army, audience, board, cabinet, committee, firm, jury, team, etc
have two important functions; some put stalled objects into motion, while others help to clarify the subjects of a sentence in meaningful ways
ex. My grumpy old English teacher SMILED at the plate of cold meatloaf.
The daredevil cockroach SPLASHED into Sara's soup.
1. Begins with a capital letter
2. includes an end mark--either a period, question mark, or exclamation point
3. must contain at least one main clause
Ex. The banana rotting at the bottom of Jimmy's book bag has soaked his biology notes with ooze.
contains an independent subject and verb and expresses a complete thought.
Ex. Diane kicked the soda machine.
Diane = the subject; kicked = the verb
who or what does the verb in a sentence
Ex. During his biology lab, TOMMY danced on the table.
expresses action; something that a person, animal, force of nature, or thing can do
Ex. Clyde SNEEZES with the force of a tornado
doesn't express action; connects the subject of a verb to additional information about the subject
Ex. Mario IS a computer hacker.
Ising isn't something that Mario can do. IS connects the subject, Mario, to additional information about him.
words, phrases, or clauses that provide description in sentences; allow writers to take the picture that they have in their heads and transfer it to the heads of readers; can be adjectives, adjective clauses, adverbs, adverb clauses, absolute phrases, infinitive phrases, etc.
Ex. Stephen dropped his fork.
With the help of modifiers:
Poor Stephen, who just wanted a quick meal to get through his three-hour biology lab, quickly dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, gagging with disgust as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again.
POOR Stephen, who just wanted a quick meal to get through his three-hour biology lab, quickly dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, gagging with disgust as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again.
-describes the noun by answering one of these three questions: What kind is it? How many are there? Which one is it?
Poor Stephen, WHO JUST WANTED A QUICK MEAL to get through his three-hour biology lab, quickly dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, gagging with disgust as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again.
Poor Stephen, who just wanted a quick meal to get through his three-hour biology lab, QUICKLY dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, gagging with disgust as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again.
Poor Stephen, who just wanted a quick meal to get through his three-hour biology lab, quickly dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, gagging with disgust AS A TARANTULA WIGGLED OUT OF HIS CHEESE OMELET, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again.
Poor Stephen, who just wanted a quick meal to get through his three-hour biology lab, quickly dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, gagging with disgust as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, A SIGHT REQUIRING A YEAR OF THERAPY BEFORE STEPHEN COULD EAT EGGS AGAIN
Poor Stephen, who just wanted a quick meal TO GET THROUGH HIS THREE-HOUR BIOLOGY LAB, quickly dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, gagging with disgust as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again.
Poor Stephen, who just wanted a quick meal to get through his three-hour biology lab, quickly dropped his fork on the cafeteria tray, GAGGING WITH DISGUST as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again.
Poor Stephen, who just wanted a quick meal to get through his three-hour biology lab, quickly dropped his fork ON THE CAFETERIA TRAY, gagging with disgust as a tarantula wiggled out of his cheese omelet, a sight requiring a year of therapy before Stephen could eat eggs again.
includes a noun and the modifiers which distinguish it.
Ex. The shoplifted pair of jeans
Pair = noun; the, shoplifted, of jeans = modifiers
multi-word verb used to express more action.
Ex. Had cleaned
Had = auxiliary verb; clean = main verb; ed = verb ending
words that indicate location;
Ex. The puppy is ON the floor. The puppy is IN the trash can. The puppy is BESIDE the phone.
Can also show location in time.
Ex. At midnight; In the spring; During the marathon
Will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause
On = preposition; time = noun
The spider ABOVE THE KITCHEN SINK has just caught a fly.
to + verb; can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs
Ex. To sleep is the only thing Eli wants after work.
tweaks the meaning of verbs and adjectives; can be single words, or phrases or clauses; answer one of four questions: How? When? Where? Why?
Ex. Lenora RUDELY grabbed the last chocolate cookie.
Rudely fine-tunes the verb grabbed.
Tyler stumbled into the COMPLETELY dark kitchen.
completely fine-tunes the adjective dark.
begins with a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun and will contain both a subject and a verb; the combination of words will not form a complete sentence
Ex. After Amy sneezed all over the tuna salad
Once Adam smashed the spider
Until Mr. Sanchez has his first cup of coffee
provides necessary transition between two ideas in the sentence; this transition will indicate a time, place, or cause and effect relationship; reduces the importance of one clause so that a reader understands which of the two ideas is more important.
Ex. after, although, once, because, before, even though, though, that, unless, wherever, while, etc.
We looked on top of the refrigerator, where Jenny will often hide apples.
As Samson blew out the birthday candles atop the cake, he burned the tip of his nose on a stubborn flame.
burning his nose > blowing out candles
which, who, whom, whichever, whoever, whomever, whose
will begin with a relative pronoun or a relative adverb;
relative pronoun/adverb + subject + verb = incomplete thought
Ex. Whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with an eraser
Where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm
when, where, why
any clause that functions as a noun
Ex. You really do not want to know the INGREDIENTS in Aunt Nancy's stew. Ingredients = noun
You really do not want to know what Aunt Nancy adds to her stew. What Aunt Nancy adds to her stew = noun clause
run-on sentence; two main clauses are connected with no punctuation
Ex. Driving home from school, Brett vowed to protect the fragile ecosystem all the while the tires of his Cadillac Escalade flattened the toads hopping on the wet streets.
run-on sentence; writer has connected two main clauses with a comma alone
Ex. Fanning the slice of pizza with a napkin, Jolene waited for it to cool, she had already burned the roof of her mouth with the fried cheese sticks.
ability to hear sounds that make up words in spoken language; includes recognizing words that rhyme, deciding whether words begin and end with the same sounds, understanding that sounds can be manipulated to create new words, and separating words into their individual sounds; organizing different sounds into meaningful chunks that can be interpreted as words
ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in words
single "unit" of sound that has meaning in any language; 44 in English; can be combinations of letters; two major categories are vowels & consonants
Ex. p, b, d, and t in English language words pad, pat, bad, and bat
ability to break words down into individual sounds
Ex. learner can break the word "run" into its component sounds -- r, u, and n.
ability to identify a word when hearing parts of the word (phonemes or syllables) in isolation; very important step in development of literacy
unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds
Ex. the word water is composed of two: wa and ter
the act of dividing words into syllables; 5 rules
1. When two consonants come between two vowels in a word, divide syllables between the consonants (cof-fee, bor-der, plas-tic, jour-ney);
2. When tehre are more than two consonants together in a word, divide the syllables keeping the blends together (em-ploy, mon-ster, en-trance, bank-rupt);
3. When tehre is one consonant between two vowels in a word, divid teh syllables afte rhte first vowel (ca-jole, bo-nus, plu-ral, gla-cier);
4. If following the previous rule doesn't make a recognizable word, divide the syllables after the consonant that comes between the vowels (doz-en, ech-o, meth-od, cour-age)
5. When there are two vowels together that don't representa a long vowel sound or a diphthong, divide the syllables between the vowels (cli-ent, po-em, cha-os, li-on, qui-et)
the initial consonant or consonant cluster of the word
Ex. "sit" - onset is "s"; rime is "it"
"spoil" - onset is "sp"; rime is "oil"
the vowel and the consonants that follow it
Ex. "sit" - onset is "s"; rime is "it"
"spoil" - onset is "sp"; rime is "oil"
capacity to distinguish between phonemes or individual sounds used in speech; some sounds are very similar to others; Ex. Seek and beak are easy to distinguish because they only differ in one single phoneme; Wreath and reef may be confused because of the phonetic similarity in "th" and "f"
Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test (WADT)
assessment tool commonly used to diagnose auditory processing disorders in young children; child positions so she can't see examiner. Examiner reads series of minimal pairs or words that differ by one phoneme such as bit/pit or ship/sheep; child is scored based on how many pairs she correctly identifies as same or different
use of the same beginning consonant sound in a line or verse; peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
created by adults pointing out letters, words and other features of print; children know print on a page is from left to right, and from top to bottom; sentences start with capital letters and end with periods, etc; they learn about book handling, how to find the top and bottom on a page, how to turn pages, identify the front and back cover; books with predictable and patterned text help children develop this; composed of repetitive text. Ex. Two cats play on the grass. Two cats play together in the sunlight. Two cats play with a ball.
written human language in which symbols reflect the pronunciation of the words; specific set of letters are used to compose words; each letter represents a phoneme (spoken sound)
the understanding that words are made up of letters and letters represent sounds; if a child understands letter-sound associations he/she is on the way to reading and writing words; recognizing the name and number of letters in words
relationship between the letters (graphemes) of written lanuage and the sounds (phonemes) of spoken language; instruction is teaching children letter-sound relationships
letters of written language
letter or series of letters that stands for a sound, syllable, syllable part, or series of sounds; also referred to as word families;
Ex. ack, ame, at, ell, ight, ink, op, ump, ate, ine, ick, etc
cat, lap, can, hat, wax, bat, fat, pat
net, let, bell, men, get, well, ten, set, tell
it, him, fix, if big, hill, mix, hit, in
dog, log, hog, not, pot, hot, got, hop, fox
us, mud, bug, hug, rug, hum, puff, bud
acorn, snake, rain, hay
theif, these, leaf, baby, bee
fly, pilot, pie, bike, knight
robot, bone, boat, bow, toe
unicorn, moon, cube, screw, glue
CVC - hat
CVCe - hate
CVVC - road
1. The r gives the preceding vowel a sound that is neither long nor short.
2. Words having double e usually have the long e sound.
3. In ay the y is silent and gives a its long sound.
4. When y is the final letter in a word, it usually has a vowel sound.
5. When c and h are next to each other, they make only one sound.
6. Ch is usually pronounced as it is in kitchen, catch, and chair, not like sh.
7. When c is followed by e or i, the sound of s is likely to be heard.
8. When the letter c is followed by o or a, the sound of k is likely to be heard.
9. When ght is seen in the word, gh is silent.
10. When two of the same consonants are side by side, only one is heard.
11. When a word ends in ck, it has the same last sound as in look.
12. In the most two-syllable words the first syllable is accented.
13. If a in, re, ex, de or be is the first syllable in a word, it is usually unaccented.
14. If most two-syllable words that end in consonant are followed by y, the first syllable is accented and the last is unaccented.
15. If the last syllable of a word ends in le, the consonant preceding the le usually begins the last syllable.
16. When the first vowel element in a word is followed by th, ch, or sh, these symbols are not broken when the word is divided into syllables and may go with either the first or the second syllable.
17. When there is one e in a word that ends with a consonant, the e usually has the short sound.
18. When the last syllable is the sound r, it is unaccented.
first of many skills in reading for children; know how to hold a book and turn pages; know stories progress as pages are turned and each book has a beginning, middle and end; understand books hold stories and are fun and interesting; show a desire to read
Level 1: Concepts About Books (Show me the front, back , title, title page, page we read first;
Level 2: Conventions of Print (show me where it tells the story, show me where we start to read, which way do we read the words, which way do the words go from there, where do we go at the end of a line);
Level 3: Concepts about Words and Letters (can you point to the words as i read, can you put your fingers around a word, show me the first word on the page,
beginning and end of each word
translating written words into the sounds and meanings of spoken words (often silently)
spelling; reverse of decoding
two words being put together
Ex. lifetime, crosswalk, together, anybody, cannot
2: teacher, rabbit
3. butterfly, elephant, computer
4. alligator, helicopter, caterpillar
high frequency sight words
most frequently used for reading and writing; the, of, and, your, make, like, him, water, no, could, people, etc
fast, effortless word recognition that comes with lots of reading practice; refers to only accurate, speedy word recognition, not reading with expression
not a stage of development; changes depending on what readers are reading, familiarity with the words, and the amount of practice with reading text; even skilled readers may read slowly when reading texts with unfamiliar words or topics
reading the words correctly
reading the words slowly or quickly
reading aloud with pitch, stress and timing to convey meaning
1. Every syllable has one vowel sound
2. The number of vowel sounds in a word equals the number of syllables
3. A one syllable word is never divided
4. Consonant blends and diagraphs are never separated
5. When a word has a "ck" or an "x" in it, the word is usually divided after the "ck" or "x"
6. A compound word is divided between the two words that maake the compound word
7. When two or more consonants come between two vowels in a word, it is usually divided between the first two consonants
8. When a single consonant comes between two vowels in a word, it is usually divided after the consonant if the vowel is short
9. When a single consonant comes between two cowels ina word, it is usually divided before the consonant if the vowel is long
10. when tow vowels come together in a word, and are sounded separately, divide the word between the two vowels
consonant-vowel-consonant; simplest words; short vowels
Ex. cat, bad, dad, hen, net, fin, kid, dog, mom, bug, bus
Ex. trap, chop, stun, grit, shop
Ex. hunt, fast, cart, milk, want
the e at the end of the word is silent and makes the previous vowel a long vowel sound
Ex. face, make, game, dine, fine, poke, joke, cube, dune, fuse
combination of two letters representing one sound; key is that although it spells a sound, it is the letters, not the sound
Ex. bl - blocks, br - broccoli, ch - cherries, cr - crow
one vowel sound formed by the combination of two vowel sounds; shifting from one vowel sound to another
Ex. oi, oy, au, aw
most make a long vowel sound; the vowel that goes first is normally the sound
Ex. Boat - the "o" is first so the vowel sounds is a long "o"
Some have one sound (ay, ee, oa, ai), and some have multiple (ea, ie, oo, ou - house, niece, mood, bread)
voiced combinations of two or three consonants (fl, bl, sl, cl ,str, sk, etc); make a distinct consonant sound
refers to the written form; when two consonants are positioned together
sounds like it's name
(ape, lake, gate)
does not sound like it's name
(apple, axe, sack)
when the letter r changes the sound of a vowel
ar - star
or - horse
ur - turtle
ir - bird
er - butter
implicit instructional strategy
analytical phonics; moves from the whole to the smallest part; students analyze words and look for the common phoneme in a set of words; blending and building are not usually taught, and students identify new words by their shape, beginning and ending letters, and context clues
explicit instructional strategy
synthetic phonics; builds from part to whole; begins with instruction of the letters with their associated sounds; teaches blending and building, beginning with blending the sounds into syllables and then into words; most effective
stage 1; Pre K- K; knows less than half of the alphabet, has no concept of word, has little phonemic awareness, recognizes a few sight words; goals are determine difference between letter and word, directionality in print, use picture clues heavily, match voice to print "one to one"
stage 2; late K - Early 1st; starting to develop print-related understandings, recognizes 3/4 of the alphabet, understands concept of word, recognizes at least 10 sight words
stage 3; early/mid 1st; independently demonstrates directionality; quickly and automatically recognizes approximately 50 basic sight words; can easily read text with simple sentence structure and significant pictures support independently and fluently; becomes comfortable discussing what they are reading
stage 4; mid/late 1st; still rely on teacher support but working towards reading independently; at least 100 basic sight words in vocabulary; can confidently read one-syllable, short-vowel words using consonant blends and diagraphs; shows some decoding and comprehension strategies; enjoys reading longer and more complex texts
stage 5; early 2nd to late 2nd; 100+ sight word vocabulary; uses word patterns in reading and writing; reads a variety of genres for a variety of purposes; reads fluently with speed, accuracy, and proper expression; can skim text quickly to retrieve information and can also infer and draw conclusions; reads and writes independently
stage 6; late 2nd -- early 4th; made the transition from learning to read to reading to learn; no longer a basic decoder of text, but is comprehending text; has extensive sight vocabulary; knows most short vowels; recognizes common long-vowel patters in text
stage 7; early 4th--late 8th; reads fluently with increased speed (100 wpm), accuracy, and proper expression; reads longer texts in variety of genres; evaluates and critiques text; can retell main ideas or events and also provide supporting details from narrative and expository texts; uses a variety of strategies to comprehend texts
use context clues, make connections, ask questions, look for inferred information while they read, predict, make notes in margins of the text, distinguish between important and nonimportant information, summarize what they read, use descriptive words to make mental pictures in their heads, reread for specific information, know when understanding has broken down, know what to do to correct misunderstandings, draw graphic organizers
Indicators that child might struggle with reading at early age
struggle with early language development, have parents who struggled with reading when young, have ADHD, lack motivation to read, live in poor neighborhoods, have dyslexia, are students in classrooms with ineffective best practices
common areas of weakness for struggling readers
comprehension, higher-level-thinking questions, vocabulary, listening, formal speaking (presentations)
best practices for struggling readers
scaffolded instruction, more time during the day to read appropriate materials, increase instructional time during the school day
motivation for reluctant reader
start with the child's pick of books; read and reread; read aloud; create opportunities to read and write beyond the pages (leave notes, ask them to send letters or emails, leave magnetic words on the refrigerator, etc)
involves two or more of the senses within the same activity
learn by reading or seeing pictures; understand and remember things by sight; you can picture what you are learning in your head; you like to see what you are learning; usually neat and clean; you might have difficulty with spoken directions and easily distracted by sounds
learn by hearing and listening; understand and remember things you have heard; easier time understanding spoken rather than written instructions
learn by touching and doing; you understand and remember things through physical movement; you prefer to touch, move, build or draw what you learn and tend to learn better when some physical activity is involved; need to be active and take frequent breaks; often speak with gestures
a word in its simplest form; has nothing added to it
Ex. do, heat, write, read, pack
a word or a part of a word that has meaning; cannot be divided into smaller meaningful segments without changing its meaning or leaving a meaningless remainder; it has relatively the same stable meaning in different verbal environments
the way in which to view a word by its part; prefix, suffix, inflectional endings, compound words
a bound morpheme that occurs before or after a base; broken into two types - suffix and prefix
word element that is in front of the root or base of a word; they change the meaning of the base of the word Ex. un + happy = unhappy
word element that is after the root or base of a word; they change the meaning of the base word
Ex. wonder + ful = wonderful
the extra letter or letters added to nouns, verbs and adjectives in their different grammatical forms
Ex. books, Mike's, bigger, biggest, walks
the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in language; how chosen words are used to form a sentence
the, a, & and; define a noun as specific or unspecific
Ex. After THE long day, THE cup of tea tastes good.
After A long day, A cup of tea tastes good.
multiple meaning words
Ex. the spruce tree...
to spruce up...
words that sound alike
Ex. addition for math; edition for book
to, too, and two
same spelling, different pronunciation, different meaning
Ex. desert = abandon; desert = dry area of land
bass = fish; bass = instrument
Ex. yell, shout
Ex. naughty, polite
informal English that have meaning different from the meaning of the words in the expression
Ex. Hold your horses.
I'm feeling sick as a dog.
Close, but no cigar.
a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance; does not describe in detail what it is referring to
Ex. This place is like a Garden of Eden.
breaking up learning into chunks and then providing a tool, or structure, with each chunk. For example, you may preview the text that is going to be read and discuss key vocabulary, or chunk the text and read and discuss as you go
the knowledge and experience stored in your brain throughout your life that helps prepare you to understand new things
information that a reader knows before reading will help them to better understand the text; comprehension is difficult if they have a limited bit of information about what they are going to read
visual organizer that allows students to think about a concept in several ways; helps organize new information, helps students make meaningful connections between main ideas and other information, easy to construct and can be used in any content area
1. What is it?
2. What is it like?
3. What are some examples?
6 scaffolding strategies
1. Show and tell
2. Tap into prior knowledge
3. Give time to talk
4. Pre-teach vocabulary
5. Use visual aids
6. Pause, ask questions, pause, review
Starts at an individual level and generally begins with a question or two; What are your ideas about? What did you think about? Then students come together in a group and share answers and build off others ideas, positively
Starts with a topic:
What do I know? What do I Wonder? What have I learnt?
The Inner Conversation: predicting, connecting, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, summarizing, synthesizing
"What's going to happen next?"
"I bet I know what he's going to do when..."
Using what you know from the text to make a guess of what will/could happen next.
compare to things in my own life
compare to things I've seen or read elsewhere
compare to things I know about the world
Who? What? When? Where? How? Why?
creating pictures in your head based on what's happening in the writing
reading between the lines; hearing what the author is saying even if they haven't directly written it; using information in the text AND what you know to figure out something that the author didn't tell you
Picking out key words; important in non-fiction; identify fact and opinion; what parts matter more than others?
Compiling in our brain what's happened in the story, or what information the text has given; use own words to describe
Adding what you've read to all the knowledge that's already in your brain and coming up with a better understanding of a topic
used to help students identify, understand, and recall the meaning of words they read in text; shows relationships between words; draws upon current knowledge; helps build confidence when they feel like they are on solid ground in a new subject
fast reading; get main idea but not all details; must leave out parts; comprehension is lower; comprehend 50% of what you are reading; twice as fast; usually done with material you know nothing about
used when you want to locate a single fact or specific bit of information without reading every word; fast way to find info; often done with material you know something about
table of contents, headlines, photographs, labels, captions, diagrams, maps, timelines, index, glossary, bold, italics, and underlined words
table of contents
give the topics/headings and beginning page number of each section
bold words that tell what the paragraph(s) in that section will be about
images that show how things look in real life
word that tells about a specific part of a picture or diagram
sentences(s) that tells who, what, or when the picture or photograph shows
labeled picture that shows the parts of something
picture that shows the location of the topic being discussed
chart that shows past events in chronological order
tells what page to find specific information in the book; in ABC order
lists new or important words in the book and their definition in ABC order
list of the books referred to in a scholarly work; may be an appendix
hints that an author gives to help define a difficult or unusual word; may appear in the same sentence as the word or follow in another sentence; may look for synonyms or antonyms to help figure it out also
when a word is unknown, the known words around that word can be helpful
The children are playing ______ the park.
positional language; order or sequence of words affects meaning.
Ex. They painted the yellow house.
They painted the house yellow.
1. They got into the b_____ and left fast.
2. They got into the b_____k and left fast.
2. The robbers came at about 6:00. They got into the b______k and left fast.
relating to meaning in language or logic
relates to the rules of forming sentences
Do I understand what I'm reading? What do I do if I don't understand it? Does it make sense? What do I do if it doesn't make sense?
What's happening in the story? What's happening with the character? Is the character changing? What do I think will happen next? What is the problem? Was the problem solved?
saying the same thing, but in different words; you can choose how much; can be spoken or written
telling the important parts of a text; shorter than the original, but must include certain ideas; can be spoken or written
telling a story that you previously heard or read; preserves the sequence and important details of a story; is spoken
assists with developing comprehension; help students navigate readying materials, especially difficult chapters or nonfiction reading; helps children comprehend the main points of the reading and understand the organizational structure of the text; major idea is demonstrated by the teacher; teacher writes questions or statements to point towards main ideas and supporting details; introduce the book, discuss the main ideas, and new vocabulary; the questions and statements are discussed and then teacher and students work together to answer after reading; what do you think book is about? Who were the characters/places/events?
helps students classify ideas; students can visually identify key points and ideas; used to structure writing projects, help in problem solving, decision making, studying, planning research, and brainstorming; simplifies information and stimulates thinking skills; show relationships between facts, concepts or ideas
types of graphic organizers
venn diagram, story map, KWL chart, timeline, reading journal
includes genre guide, reading log, students responses/summaries, and teacher responses
textbooks (science), textbooks (humanities), reports, tourism guides, product specification, product descriptions, magazine articles, company profiles, legal documents,
opinion/editorial pieces, speeches, advertisements, political propaganda, journal articles, government documents, legal documents, essays, memoirs
training manuals, contracts, user guides, recipes
biographies, histories, correspondence, curriculum vitae, memoirs, news articles
features of informational texts
font, bullets, titles, subheadings, italics, labels, diagrams, sketches, maps, charts, tables, timelines, table of contents, glossary, pronunciation guide, appendix, index, colored photographs/drawings, black and white photographs/drawings, labeled drawings
informational text that uses language to help the reader form images or visualize processes; uses descriptive details, (on, over, beyond, within, etc).
informational text that presents ideas or events in the order in which they happen; key words are first, second, before, after, finally, then, next, earlier, later, last
informational text that discusses two ideas, events, or phenomena, showing how they are similar and different; key words are while, yet, but, rather, most, either, like and unlike, same, as opposed to, as well as, likewise, on the other hand, etc
cause and effect
informational text that provides explanation or reasons for phenomena; key words are because, since, thus, so that, if...then, therefore, nevertheless, due to, this led to, as a result, then...so, etc
informational text that identifies problems and poses solutions; key words are propose, conclude, a solution, the problem or the question, research shows, the evidence is, a reason for, etc
book published for and sold to the general public through booksellers
teacher provides support for small groups of readers; teacher helps students learn to sue reading strategies (context clues, letter and sound knowledge, and syntax or word structure) as they read an unfamiliar book; BEFORE READING: set the purpose for reading, introduce vocab, make predictions, talk about good reading strategies
DURING READING: guide students as they read, provide wait time, give prompts or clues as needed by individual students ("try that again," "does that make sense") etc.
AFTER READING: strengthen comprehension skills and provide praise for strategies used by students during the reading
use to help struggling readers; have controlled vocabulary and reading difficulty levels, but also have plots and topics appropriate for older students; want to avoid a 4th grader reading about teddy bears because his reading level is lower
requires straightforward answers; answers are always facts, and there is always one correct answer; answers can be found in the text; answers may shed light on who, what, when or where
Ex. What time does the concert start?
What size do you wear?
What references did you use to write your paper?
require answers that require context clues; tougher to answer because they can have more than one correct answer; answers can't be found in text but they are supported by evidence of the text; shed light onto why and how
Ex. Why does the concert start at 7:30?
How did you manage to finish your paper in time?
formal literary response
start by helping students understand the purpose for writing; help students find a focus for their writing by brainstorming ideas for writing or looking at a teachers' model; offer some tools to them for written response (prompts, open-ended questions, diary entries in the voice of the character, cause/effect explanation, sketching/drawing, letters to characters, etc; build the students' skills by ongoing feedback and refinement
understanding of language "input"; ability to take in language and understand, include being able to follow directions, understand a story, and understand figurative language; ability to understand or comprehend language heard or read; you receive the language and decode the meaning to understand the message; AKA passive skills
encompasses the many ways of conveying a message; learning the forms of language, such as verb forms, plural endings, and how to use pronouns, as well as the content of language; able to put thoughts into words and sentences in a a way that makes sense and is grammatically accurate
speaking and writing; needed to produce language; AKA active skills
first language, native language, learned from birth
developed before age 4; has huge impact on children's preparedness for kindergarten and on their successes throughout their academic career; usually enter school with a wide range of background knowledge attributed to experiences in the home and their socioeconomic status
oral language development factors
amount of exposure to language; exposure to print; English not spoken in the home; background experience; parents' level of education; transitions and disruptions int he students home life
words in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling, and pronunciation; 30-40% of all words in English have a related word in Spanish; a bridge to the English language
Ex. elephant and elefante
ability to use cognates in a primary language as a tool for understanding a second language
norm-referenced testing norms
refers to standardized tests that are designed to compare and rank test takes in relation to one another; report whether test takers performed better or worse than a hypothetical average student which is determined by comparing scores against the performance of a statistically selected group of test takers (usually same age or grade level who have already taken exam). Scores are usually reported as a percentage or percentile ranking (ex. 70th percentile is better than 70%); often multiple-choice format, and some short answer; based on some form of national standards, not local standards or curricula; IQ tests are an example & California Achievement test; may be used to determine a young child's readiness for preschool or kindergarten, evaluate basic reading, writing & math skills, identify specific learning disabilities (autism, dyslexia, nonverbal learning disability, etc); program eligibility or college-admissions (SAT).
criterion-referenced testing norms
designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards (written descriptions of what students are expected to know and be able to do at a specific stage of their education); used to evaluate whether students have learned a specific body of knowledge or acquired a specific skill set; if students perform at or above the expectations (ex. answer a certain percentage of questions correctly) they will pass the test and be deemed proficient; it is not only possible, but desirable for every student to pass the test or earn a perfect score; may include multiple choice, true-false, or open-ended questions; may be used to determine whether students have learned expected knowledge or skills, whether students have learning gaps, evaluate effectiveness of teachers, measure progress toward goals in an individualized education plan
Informal Reading Inventory
IRI; informal assessment of reading inventory, including what the assessment measures, when it should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered; measures grade level reading, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary, oral reading accuracy; on-going assessment that should be completed several times (kindergarten - twice, first and second grade - 3 times); should be done more often with struggling readers; choose a grade level passage for the student to read & complete the assessments as they are reading; after reading, check for understanding through implicit and explicit questions & ask open ended questions
independent reading level
level at which a child can read a text on his/her own with ease; child makes hardly any errors when reading the text and has excellent comprehension of the story; child can read the story alone with confidence
instructional reading level
level at which a child needs the support of a teacher, parent, or tutor; level where students are introduced to new vocabulary and is where the greatest progress in in reading occurs; children are reading with 90-95% accuracy or better and possess at least 80% comprehension on simple recall questions
frustration reading level
occurs when the accuracy of the reading goes below 90%
informal reading assessment
non-distracting, comfortable testing environment where rest of the class is engaged in a task or assignment and working quietly; sit in quiet corner and give students a book and ask questions; ask questions depending on level; may include whether or not they can recognize parts of the book, rhyming words, initial sounds, blending words, etc
3 cuing systems are graphophonic system (visual cues), syntactic system (syntax or structure cues), and semantic system (meaning)
mispronunciation, substitution, insertion, omission, refusal to pronounce, repetition, reversal, self-correction
humorous misuse of a word by confusing it with a similar sounding word
Ex. The weatherman said there was a 90% chance of participation this afternoon.
The doctor gave me a subscription for my allergies.
My grandfather had eye surgery to remove is cadillacs.
programs or sets of steps to help a child improve in an area of need; these are intentional, specific and formal (may last a certain number of weeks or months and is reviewed at set intervals), are set up in this way to monitor progress; aimed at a known need and monitored; collaboration, high-quality instruction
instructional intervention; prevention, school-wide, all students and staff are a part, best first instruction with universal access
instructional intervention; targeted; additional time and intensity; includes students that need additional targeted interventions
instructional intervention; customized; includes students that need additional targeted interventions
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