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50 terms

Nutrition Final (set 1)

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The top three causes of death in the US include stroke, cancer, and heart disease. All of these conditions are thought to be increased by ______
obesity
What is a false statement about proteins?
proteins are made of amino acids, vitamins, and minerals
The term "Calorie" is used in nutrition to mean
the amount of energy a food item provides when eaten
True or False: Over time, consuming excess or insufficient amounts of one or more nutrients will result in malnutrition.
True
Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as _______
phytochemicals
which of the following is classified as a micronutrient?
Iron
Which of the following is characteristic of an essential nutrient
Cannot be made in sufficient quantities
Which of the following CANNOT add fat to the body
inorganic nutrients
The percentage range of intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases is termed the
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition
4 out of the 10
All of the following are characteristics of the Dietary Reference Intakes, except:
there are two sets of standards, one for healthy people and one for when someone is sick
Energy recommendation about the proportions of calories that should come from carbohydrate, fat, and protein:
AMDR
TRUE or FALSE: Ingredients on a food label are listed in descending order by weight.
True!
TRUE or FALSE: Because structure/function claims on supplements have undergone rigorous scientific study, the FDA has approved these claims.
False
All of the following are examples of legumes except:
lentils
peanuts
potatoes
garbanzo beans
potatoes
The addition of liberal amounts of calcium to some commercially available orange juice products by juice processors is most properly termed nutrient
fortification
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the _____ ______
Daily Values
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories?
2,000
The USDA Food Guide recommends eating
at least half of your grains as whole grains each day
What does it mean to choose foods for their nutrient density?
Foods with a lot of nutrients per calorie such as fish are more nutritious choices than foods with fewer nutrients per calorie such as candy
When you eat a taco, the tortilla, meat, cheese, lettuce, and tomato, are broken apart, releasing the nutrients and other food components they contain. This process is called:
digestion
Which of the following substances is not absorbed?
Amino Acids
Sugars
Fatty acids
Fiber
Fiber
The transport of substances across a cell membrane with the aid of a carrier molecule and the expenditure of energy.
Active transport
Jasmine has gallstones and experiences severe pain when she eats. What substance should she avoid to try to reduce the pain she is experiencing?
fat
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
epiglottis
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
protects stomach cells from gastric juices
What is the function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
creates an optimum acidity
Which of the following products of digestion is NOT normally released directly into the bloodstream?
fats
minerals
vitamin C
carbohydrates
Fats
People who have frequent regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as ________ _______
gastroesophageal reflux
Which of the following processes moves food along the entire GI tract?
peristalsis
People who are lactose intolerant:
have inadequate production of the enzyme lactase
Glycemic index is a measure of:
How an ingested food potentially affects blood glucose levels
the rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secrete the hormone _______, causing blood glucose levels to ______.
insulin; drop
This form of diabetes is caused by an autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas:
Type 1 diabetes
the type of fiber that lowers blood cholesterol levels:
soluble
In which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found?
plant foods
Which of the following is known as blood sugar or dextrose?
glucose
What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
glycogen
A person diagnosed with milk allergy would be sensitive to the milk's
protein
Which of the following is a typical response of the body to changes is blood glucose?
Blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagon.
This lipid is an important component of cell membranes, forming a lipid bilayer by orienting the water-soluble portion towards the water environment:
phopholipid
Which of the following is a characteristic of essential fatty acids?
the body cannot make these at all or in sufficient quantities to meet the body's need
All of the following are true about omega-3 fatty acids except:
high amounts in the diet increase inflammation
Each gram of fat from the diet contains ____ calories:
9
Intake of fish, nuts, and whole grains ____ _________ heart disease risk.
may decrease
All of the following foods contain cholesterol except:
potato chips cooked in partially hydrogenated corn oil
Triglycerides that are consumed in the diet can be used in all of the following situations except:
converted to muscle tissue
TRUE or FALSE: Excess calories that are consumed as carbohydrate or protein can be used to synthesize fatty acids
True!
Which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol?
it is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
Which of the following contains the LEAST cholesterol per serving size?
steamed corn