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Use of violence against civilians to inflict fear and to bring about attention grievances and alleged corruption of government.

Shanghi Cooperative Organization

A group of five central Eurasian countries and China organized to fight against terrorism, its greatest enemy being Islamist radical groups.

Standards of Civilization

A Euro-centric values that claims Europoean or similar countries should colonize or control non-European areas that are "uncivilized" and in need of European culture.

New International Economic Order

Developing countries seeking better representation in international economic institutions, fairer trading systems, more aid, the regulation of foreign investment, the protection of economic sovereignty, and reforms to ensure a more stable and equitable financial and monetary system. Developed countries were encouraged to given these advantages to "southern" and less industrialized countries.


International banks "condition" or require certain promises and guarantees from countries waning to borrow monies or other form of economic assistance.

Zero-sum games

One country's gain is connected to another country's loss.

Mercantilist Perspective

European or colonialist countries forming trade monopolies with non-European nations or areas, where manufactured products would be traded for mineral or agricultural products, primarily to bring high profits to the Europeans.

Rational Choice

The idea that what motivates leaders is to bring about the highest profit or advantage, where they consciously or unconsciously approach policies and actions according to the best cost-advantage to themselves.

Grameen Bank

A bank giving loans largerly to small-time female business persons in less-developed countries. Loan repayments figure over 96%, and the Bank has become a successful model for development and empowerment of women.

Prisoners' Dilemma Scenario

A mini-max strategy, that being, to take the best odds. Here, two prisoners are separated in jail cells (they cannot communicate with each other), and each is asked either to plead "innocent" or "guilty." In a mathematical estimation of their odds (not knowing what the other prisoner will plead), the better strategy is to plead "guilty," thus reducing the worse possible outcome, but also sacrificing the best outcome.

Intrafirm Trade

International trade from one branch of a trans-border company to another branch of the same company but in a different country.

Offshore Finance Centers

Banks in small island countries or in small countries that attract investors and companies from the larger countries as a method of avoiding their national taxes, regulations, and law enforcement agencies.


Also called "stocks" or "stock shares" where investors, hoping for profits, owe parts of companies.

Factors for Hunger in Zimbabwe

Bad harvests; poor government planning and land reform; favoritism of government in awarding land grants; unemployment and inflation because of economic problems; higher oil prices.

Sustainable Development

Economic development that balances prosperity during the current time without harming the environmental and economic abilities of future generations to meet their own living needs.

Rice Decline in Haiti

Trade liberalization forced the decline of tariffs on rice imports, this causing a serious decline in rice prices that severely under minded the livelihoods of Haitian rice farmers, thus bringing rural poverty and migration to cities.

Environmental Footprint

How much can our environment support present economic prosperity? How do we balance the availability of productive agriculture land and water with the demands of larger populations and high living standards that must absorb higher amounts of such resources?

Trail Smelter Case

One of the first international-law cases that dealt with the costs of cross-border pollution/ Fumes from a lead factory in Canada caused damages across the United States border, the court finding Canada guilty for liability.

Doomsday Seed Vault

North of Norway and near the North Pole, a tunnel carved into a mountain that will contain numerous seed varieties of crops and plants that are predicted for possible extinction.


Lands in arid and dry areas that lose all vegetation and soil moisture and thus are destroyed because of over-use and over-population.

Global Commons and Tragedy of the Commons

Areas of resources not under national sovereignty that belong to no single country and are the responsibility of the entire world, such as Antarctic and the outer oceans and space. The "tragedy" of the commons will come when individual countries take too much of their share of the resources o these commons, and ruin them for all peoples.

Environmental Free-Ride

Where users of environmental resources take more than their "fair share," reducing or destroying these resources for others' use.

Parts of Antarctic Treaty

Agreement among nations to conserve the marine ecosystems around the continent, to ban mining for fifty years, to avoid dumping radio-active wastes on the continent, limiting fishing in oceans near land; to coordinate scientific research of area.

Kennedy's Foreign Policy

Cold Warrior - he wanted to "win" the Cold War through counter-insurgency warfare, making the U.S. more popular (Space program), and strengthening the middle class to bring democracy to the Third World, increase arms (nuclear and otherwise), and contain Communism,

Is International Law really law?

Very little enforcement is seen in the international domain. International law does not need to be enforced because it normally is obeyed automatically by countries.Not disobeyed because if treaties are broken, help is lost.

Good offices

Where neutral countries will offer facilities (hotels and resorts, security and privacy, for example) to negotiators of other countries. The Vietnam Peace Accords among the United States, Chine, North and South Vietnam took place outside of Paris, France.

The three legal consequences of recognition

1. Recognize their government and actions of government as legitimate.
2. Diplomatic immunity.
3. Use of courts.

What makes the Security Council veto so important?

1. It makes possible the ability of a permanent member to protect itself against an unfavorable Security Council vote.
2. Without the veto, the larger countries would not have joined the United Nations.
3. The veto marks the place where a consensus of the larger countries is located.
4. Veto prevents reckless actions taken by the Council.

International Servitude

Locally owned, but with certain international obligations. Case being Panama Canal

Jus Soil or Jus Sanguinas Citizenship

Jus Soil - Place of birth as determining citizenship
Jus Sanguinas - Qualification of citizenship via parents' citizenship

Exhausting Local Remedies and Denial of Justice

Used in Jane's Claim because of lack of diligence by the local police in a more seriously attempting to capture Carvajal.


Over time, something that was illegal becomes legal due to lack of challenging.


Boundary at the middle of the deepest channel of a river or lake.

Territorial Waters

Coastal waters up until 12 miles from shore are national territory (as if land), 200 miles out are "exclusive economic zones" in which coastal country laws are still enforcedG.

Missouri v. Holland

U.S. and Britain signed a threat to protect migratory birds, U.S. Congress passed a law that enabled the administration of the treaty throughout the states. The state game warden in Missouri, named Mr. Holland, did not abide by these rules and cited 10th amendment, whereas the U.S. cited 6th amendment.

Decision - Treaty and enabling laws are valid due to 6th amendment "laws of the land" and conflicting state laws are constitutionally invalid.

Luther v. Sagor

Luther, a British citizen, had his lumber company in Russia confiscated by Soviet government. The Soviets then sold the lumber to Sagor company. Luther sued Sagor for recovery of the lumber.

Decision - Soviet government recognized by the British government and Soviet's actions were legal. Recognition by one country to another gives legality to all official actions of the recognized government.

The Anna

British ship captured U.S. ship the Anna near the Mississippi river during a war between Spain and England. The ship was carrying war contraband for the Spanish side, England maintained it was valid. The U.S. claimed it was captured within 3 miles of several mud-flat islands at the mouth of the river, thus making it an invalid capture.

Decision - The capture was unjustified because it was in U.S. territorial waters and the mud flats are U.S. territory.

Unitary Government Constitution

Governing authority rest largely in the central or national governments. Local administrations carry out the laws of the central government and are subservient to it. Examples are Kansas, Great Britain, and France.

Confederation Government Constitution

Governing authority rests largely in the state or local governments. A central authority is weaker than the local governments or non-existent. Examples include the United Nations and Switzerland.

Federation Government Constitution

Governing authority is shared or divided between local/state government and a national/central government. Most geographically larger countries are federally organized - the United States, Brazil, Mexico.

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