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Separists vs. non-Separist Puritans

Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth

Northwest Passage

believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth

Conversion Experience

required of members of the Puritan Church; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church

Social Reciprocity

society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminately

Church of England

Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty

Atlantic slave trade

often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange


first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River

John Smith

introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks


key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617

Mayflower Compact

foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land

John Winthrop

Calvinist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity"); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay

"City on a Hill"

exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic* beliefs

Indentured servants

settlers to pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright* system

Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)

mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majorly was protestant)

James I, Charles I

reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors

William Penn and the Quakers

settled in Pennsylvania, believed the "Inner Light" could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers

Roger Williams

challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church

Anne Huchinson

challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism

The Half-Way Covenant

New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints

Bacon's Rebellion

rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans

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