20 terms

Colonial History (1600-1763)

Separists vs. non-Separist Puritans
Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth
Northwest Passage
believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth
Conversion Experience
required of members of the Puritan Church; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church
Social Reciprocity
society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminately
Church of England
Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty
Atlantic slave trade
often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange
first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River
John Smith
introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks
key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617
Mayflower Compact
foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
John Winthrop
Calvinist, devised concept of "city on a hill" ("A Model of Christian Charity"); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay
"City on a Hill"
exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic* beliefs
Indentured servants
settlers to pay the expenses of a servant's voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright* system
Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)
mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majorly was protestant)
James I, Charles I
reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors
William Penn and the Quakers
settled in Pennsylvania, believed the "Inner Light" could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers
Roger Williams
challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church
Anne Huchinson
challenged New England Calvinist ministers' authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
The Half-Way Covenant
New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
Bacon's Rebellion
rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans