Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the:
1. thoracic duct 2. right lymphatic duct 3. cisterna chili 4. hepatic portal vein 5. dural sinus
The term lymphadenopathy refers to:
1. a congenital lack of lymph nodes 2. a chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes 3. accumulations of lymph in the tissue space 4. the lack of lymphocytes in peripheral circulation 5. increased numbers of circulating lymphocytes
Lymphatic organs differ from lymphatic tissues in what way?
1. They contain T lymphocytes and lymphatic tissues do not 2. They are found in the digestive tract and lymphatic tissues are found in the thorax 3. They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not 4. They cannot produce antibodies, whereas lymphatic tissues can 5. They occur throughout the body except in the head
The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the ________ cells.
1. NK 2. B 3. helper T 4. cytotoxic T 5. suppressor T
Lymphatic vessels commonly occur in association with:
1. hyaline cartilage 2. blood vessels 3. adipose tissue 4. sensory nerve endings 5. both blood vessels and adipose tissue
Dividing lymphocytes can be found in the ________ of the lymphatic nodule:
Which of these statements about lymph flow in a node is false?
1. Lymph enters in an afferent lymphatic 2. Lymph first enters the subcapsular space 3. Lymph flows past dendritic cells 4. The efferent lymphatic exits at the hilum 5. The afferent lymphatics enters at the hilum
The merging of ________ forms the right lymphatic duct:
1. the left jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks 2. the right jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks 3. two great vessels 4. the thoracic and mediastinal ducts 5. superior and inferior lymphatic ducts
If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of:
1. B lymphcytes 2. NK cells 3. T cells 4. Neutrophils 5. RBCs
1. monocytes 2. Kupffer cells 3. neutrophils 4. eosinophils 5. both neutrophils and eosinophils
Innate defenses include:
1. physical barriers 2. phagocytic cells 3. inflammation 4. interferons 5. all of the answers are correct
Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called ________ immunity.
1. active 2. natural passive 3. passive 4. innate 5. auto
The release of endogenous pyrogen (or interleukin-1) by active macrophages would:
1. produce a fever 2. cause inflammation 3. activate complement. 4. opsonize pathogens 5. activate antibodies
Identify the dominant cell type in the area labeled "6." <cortex, inner cortex>
1. T cells 2. B cells 3. Erythrocytes 4. Platelets 5. All of the answers are correct
The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the protein C1 binds:
1. to a plasma protein 2. to the cell wall of bacteria 3. to a cell surface antigen 4. to an antibody attached to an antigen 5. to the plasma membrane of bacteria
In an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which it makes antibodies. These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is an example of:
1. increase T-cell sensitivity to antigens exposed on macrophage membranes 2. stimulate B-cell activity, plasma cell formation, and antibody production 3. stimulate inflammation 4. elevate body temperature 5. stimulate collagen synthesis
Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?
1. all body cells with a nucleus 2. red blood cells 3. granulocytes and microphages 4. lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells 5. liver cells and macrophages in the spleen
Characteristics of adaptive defenses include:
1. Versatility 2. Tolerance 3. Memory 4. Specificity 5. all of the answers are correct
Helper T cells do all of the following, except:
1. trigger B-cell division, plasma cell maturation, and antibody production 2. provide a rapid response to a future exposure to the antigen 3. enhance production of memory and cytotoxic T cells 4. attract macrophages to the affected area 5. enhance nonspecific defenses
In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must:
1. be phagocytized by the lymphocyte 2. enter the cytoplasm of the lymphocyte 3. bind to the DNA of the lymphocyte 4. bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface 5. depolarize the lymphocyte
Hormones of the immune system include all of the following, except:
1. the variable segment of the light chain 2. the variable segment of the heavy chain 3. the constant segment of the heavy chain 4. the variable segments of both the light and heavy chains 5. the ionized segment of the light chain and the isotropic segment of the heavy chain
________ is the class of antibody first secreted in response to a new antigen.
1. IgG 2. IgE 3. IgD 4. IgM 5. IgA
A crime scene investigator found that a biological fluid sample contains a large amount of IgA-type antibody. This fluid is probably: