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95 terms

A&P II ch 16 ANS

the____ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to be functioning during "rest and digest"
the sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following
thoracolumbar division
preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on
ganglionic neurons
the statement "there is always a peripheral synapse between the CNS and the effector organ" is
true for both the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system
preganglionic neurons of the ANS are located in
both the brain and the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord
ganglionic neurons innervate such things as
-smooth muscle
-cardiac muscle
-adipose tissue
the parasympathetic nervous system is especially active in during which physiological state
a visceral motor neuron whose cell body is within the CNS is called a _______ neuron
craniosacral division is another name for the
parasympathetic division of the ANS
sympathetic preganglionic neurons are ____ and have ____ axons
short; myelinated
in the sympathetic nervous system, where are the preganglionic neurons located
thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord
preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the
lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord
clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic____ ganglia
clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ____ ganglia
injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the
digestive tract
damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to
dilate the right pupil
postganglionic axons usually are
stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to
hydrolysis of liver glycogen reserves
injury to the cervical sympathetic ganglia would affect the function of the
-salivary glands
collateral ganglia contains neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity
sympathetic nerves
are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity
pregaqnglionic fibers that innervate the collateral ganglia form the
splanchnic nerves
the celiac ganglia innervate which of the following
the suprarenal medullae secrete
both epinephrine and norepinephrine
during sympathetic activation, ____ occurs
-elevated heart rate
-elevated blood pressure
-elevated blood glucose
specialized ganglionic sympathetic neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream are found within the
suprarenal medullae
postganglioninc fibers that innervate targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity originate on neurons within
sympathetic chain ganglia
each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except
decreased heart rate
splanchnic nerves
consist of axons that synapse in collateral ganglia
the celiac ganglion innervates the
sympathetic innervation of the urinary bladder is by way of the
inferior mesenteric ganglion
the celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric ganglia are collectively called ____ ganglia
as ther result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1 and T2 on the left side of Brad's body are severed. what organs would be affected by this injury
left pupil and the heart
a person is confronted by a dangerous dog. his heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. these signs are the result of
the "fight or flight" resonse
Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). which of the following might help deal with his problem? a drug that
blocks alpha-1 receptors in skeletal muscle and blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
drugs that have effects similar to those of sympathetic activation are called sympathomimetic drugs. which of the following would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken a sympathomimetic drug
decreased blood pressure
drugs known as beta blockers may be useful for treating
excessive heart rate
postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter____ at their effector junctions
-nitric oxide
stimulation of the beta receptors on heart muscle cells result in
increased heart rate and force of contraction
stimulation of a1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine results in
release of calcium ions from intracellular stores
an inhaler used to treat airway constriction in asthma or allergy might contain a drug that
activates B2 adrenergic receptors
which of the following statements about adrenergic receptors is true
-they are G proteins
-when activated, cAMP levels are effected
-epinephrine activates both alpha and beta types
-norepinephrine activates both alpha and beta types
most sympathetic receptor junctions release norepinephrine but a significant number release acetycholine instead. which is an example of an organof the cholinergic type
a sweat gland
a certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. this drug probably binds to ____ receptors
beta--1 adrenergic
drugs that stimulate alpha receptors, causing constriction of peripheral vessels are
sympathomimetic drugs might be used to
dilate airways
ganglionic neurons in the suprarenal gland
release epinephrine into blood capillaries
the statement "it initiates contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle" is
true only for the parasympathetic nervous system
preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic neurons are present in all of the following crnial nerves, except
almost 75% of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the
vagus nerve
which of the following is not an parasympathetic ganglion
celiac ganglion
para sympathetic functions include all of the following, except
dilation of the airways
postganglionic fibers release neurotransmitter on peripheral effectors
at pearl-like swellings called varicosities
which of the following statements concerning the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is false
preganglionic fibers are relatively short and postganglionic fibers are relatively long
which of these provides pereganglionic parasympathetic innervation to structures in the neck and in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
vagus nerves
parasympathetic stimulation
increases gastric motility
intramural ganglia in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs are innervated by the ____ nerves
the statement "its ganglia are usually near or within the end organ" is
true only for the parasympathetic nervous system
the statement "its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter" is
true only for the parasympathetic nervous system
sweat gland contain ____ receptors
muscarinic cholinergic
nicotinic receptors
open chemically-gated sodium ion channels
muscarinic receptors
are normally activated by acetylcholine
the statement "preganglionic axon terminals release acetylcholine" is
true for both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system
a neuron with nicotinic receptors is exposed to acetylcholine. this will lead to
-activation of chemically-gated ion channels
-excitation of the neuron
-entry of sodium ions onto the neuron
-depolarization of the neuron
drugs that block nicotinic receptors would be
autonomic blocking agents
parasympathetic blocking agents can be useful in treating
urinary incontinence
mary accidentally ate poisonous mushrooms that contain muscarine. what symptoms would you expect to observe
-very low heart rate
dual innervation refers to an organ receiving
both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation
the statement "it controls the diameter of the pupil" is
true for both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers that innervate the heart pass through the
cardiac plexus
control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon
both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation
autonomic tone is an important aspect of the ANS function because it
allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options
a decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in
an increase in blood flow through the vessel
in general, autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels increases when
sympathetic stimulation is increased
which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex
-defecation reflex
-vomiting reflex
-pupillary reflex
-ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli
which of the following visceral reflexes is not coordinated by the medulla oblongata
pupillary reflex
which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function
increased heart rate when you see a person you fear
which of the following is essential for memory consolidation
mechanisms involved in memory formation and storage involves all of the following, except
anterograde amnesia
long-term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called
tertiary memories
conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called
memory consolidation
the conscious state is maintained by the
reticular activating system
based on stimulation studies, the "headquarters" of the reticular activating system appears to be based in the
a state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is
a state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is
the brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are ____ waves
in deep sleep,
the EEG pattern is characterized as "slow wave"
after arousal by a sensory stimulus, consciousness can be maintained by positive feedback, because of activity in
-cerebral cortex
-basal nuclei
-sensory pathways
-motor pathways
the regulation of awake-sleep cycles appears to involve an interplay between brain stem nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. the one that favors alertness is ____ and the other promoting deep sleep is ____
norepinephrine; serotonin
hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD, function by
stimulating serotonin receptors
the inherited brain disorder Huntington's disease is caused by the destruction of basal nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. one neurotransmitter is ____ and the other is ___
acetylcholine; GABBA
what mental illness is often improved by drugs that block serotonin re-uptake
an age related decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and personality is called
senile dementia
changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include
-reduction in brain size and weight
-decrease in the number of neurons
-decreased blood flow to the brain
-changes in synaptic organization in the brain
Alzheimer disease is characterized by all of the following, except that it
has a clear genetic basis