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the____ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to be functioning during "rest and digest"


the sympathetic division of the ANS is also known as which of the following

thoracolumbar division

preganglionic fibers leave the CNS and then synapse on

ganglionic neurons

the statement "there is always a peripheral synapse between the CNS and the effector organ" is

true for both the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system

preganglionic neurons of the ANS are located in

both the brain and the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord

ganglionic neurons innervate such things as

-smooth muscle
-cardiac muscle
-adipose tissue

the parasympathetic nervous system is especially active in during which physiological state


a visceral motor neuron whose cell body is within the CNS is called a _______ neuron


craniosacral division is another name for the

parasympathetic division of the ANS

sympathetic preganglionic neurons are ____ and have ____ axons

short; myelinated

in the sympathetic nervous system, where are the preganglionic neurons located

thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord

preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system are located in the

lateral gray horns of segments T1 to L2 of the spinal cord

clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons lying along either side of the spinal cord are called sympathetic____ ganglia


clusters of ganglionic sympathetic neurons that innervate organs in the abdominopelvic region are called ____ ganglia


injury to the neurons of a collateral ganglion would affect the function of the

digestive tract

damage to the ventral roots of the first five thoracic spinal nerves on the right side of the body would interfere with the ability to

dilate the right pupil

postganglionic axons usually are


stimulation of the neurons in the celiac ganglion would lead to

hydrolysis of liver glycogen reserves

injury to the cervical sympathetic ganglia would affect the function of the

-salivary glands

collateral ganglia contains neurons that innervate tissues and organs in which cavity


sympathetic nerves

are bundles of postganglionic fibers that innervate organs within the thoracic cavity

pregaqnglionic fibers that innervate the collateral ganglia form the

splanchnic nerves

the celiac ganglia innervate which of the following


the suprarenal medullae secrete

both epinephrine and norepinephrine

during sympathetic activation, ____ occurs

-elevated heart rate
-elevated blood pressure
-elevated blood glucose

specialized ganglionic sympathetic neurons that release hormones into the bloodstream are found within the

suprarenal medullae

postganglioninc fibers that innervate targets in the body wall or thoracic cavity originate on neurons within

sympathetic chain ganglia

each of the following effects is associated with the action of postganglionic sympathetic fibers, except

decreased heart rate

splanchnic nerves

consist of axons that synapse in collateral ganglia

the celiac ganglion innervates the


sympathetic innervation of the urinary bladder is by way of the

inferior mesenteric ganglion

the celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric ganglia are collectively called ____ ganglia


as ther result of an accident, the white rami of spinal nerves T1 and T2 on the left side of Brad's body are severed. what organs would be affected by this injury

left pupil and the heart

a person is confronted by a dangerous dog. his heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. these signs are the result of

the "fight or flight" resonse

Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). which of the following might help deal with his problem? a drug that

blocks alpha-1 receptors in skeletal muscle and blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue

drugs that have effects similar to those of sympathetic activation are called sympathomimetic drugs. which of the following would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken a sympathomimetic drug

decreased blood pressure

drugs known as beta blockers may be useful for treating

excessive heart rate

postganglionic sympathetic axons can release the neurotransmitter____ at their effector junctions

-nitric oxide

stimulation of the beta receptors on heart muscle cells result in

increased heart rate and force of contraction

stimulation of a1 adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine results in

release of calcium ions from intracellular stores

an inhaler used to treat airway constriction in asthma or allergy might contain a drug that

activates B2 adrenergic receptors

which of the following statements about adrenergic receptors is true

-they are G proteins
-when activated, cAMP levels are effected
-epinephrine activates both alpha and beta types
-norepinephrine activates both alpha and beta types

most sympathetic receptor junctions release norepinephrine but a significant number release acetycholine instead. which is an example of an organof the cholinergic type

a sweat gland

a certain drug decreases heart rate by blocking a receptor on cardiac pacemaker cells. this drug probably binds to ____ receptors

beta--1 adrenergic

drugs that stimulate alpha receptors, causing constriction of peripheral vessels are


sympathomimetic drugs might be used to

dilate airways

ganglionic neurons in the suprarenal gland

release epinephrine into blood capillaries

the statement "it initiates contraction of urinary bladder smooth muscle" is

true only for the parasympathetic nervous system

preganglionic fibers of parasympathetic neurons are present in all of the following crnial nerves, except


almost 75% of all parasympathetic outflow travels along the

vagus nerve

which of the following is not an parasympathetic ganglion

celiac ganglion

para sympathetic functions include all of the following, except

dilation of the airways

postganglionic fibers release neurotransmitter on peripheral effectors

at pearl-like swellings called varicosities

which of the following statements concerning the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is false

preganglionic fibers are relatively short and postganglionic fibers are relatively long

which of these provides pereganglionic parasympathetic innervation to structures in the neck and in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

vagus nerves

parasympathetic stimulation

increases gastric motility

intramural ganglia in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs are innervated by the ____ nerves


the statement "its ganglia are usually near or within the end organ" is

true only for the parasympathetic nervous system

the statement "its postganglionic axons always use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter" is

true only for the parasympathetic nervous system

sweat gland contain ____ receptors

muscarinic cholinergic

nicotinic receptors

open chemically-gated sodium ion channels

muscarinic receptors

are normally activated by acetylcholine

the statement "preganglionic axon terminals release acetylcholine" is

true for both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system

a neuron with nicotinic receptors is exposed to acetylcholine. this will lead to

-activation of chemically-gated ion channels
-excitation of the neuron
-entry of sodium ions onto the neuron
-depolarization of the neuron

drugs that block nicotinic receptors would be

autonomic blocking agents

parasympathetic blocking agents can be useful in treating

urinary incontinence

mary accidentally ate poisonous mushrooms that contain muscarine. what symptoms would you expect to observe

-very low heart rate

dual innervation refers to an organ receiving

both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation

the statement "it controls the diameter of the pupil" is

true for both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers that innervate the heart pass through the

cardiac plexus

control of the diameter of the respiratory passages depends upon

both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation

autonomic tone is an important aspect of the ANS function because it

allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options

a decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in

an increase in blood flow through the vessel

in general, autonomic tone of peripheral blood vessels increases when

sympathetic stimulation is increased

which of the following is an example of a visceral reflex

-defecation reflex
-vomiting reflex
-pupillary reflex
-ejaculation in response to tactile stimuli

which of the following visceral reflexes is not coordinated by the medulla oblongata

pupillary reflex

which of the following would be an example of higher-level control of autonomic function

increased heart rate when you see a person you fear

which of the following is essential for memory consolidation


mechanisms involved in memory formation and storage involves all of the following, except

anterograde amnesia

long-term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called

tertiary memories

conversion of a short-term memory to a long-term memory is called

memory consolidation

the conscious state is maintained by the

reticular activating system

based on stimulation studies, the "headquarters" of the reticular activating system appears to be based in the


a state of unconsciousness in which an individual can be aroused by normal stimuli is


a state of unconsciousness in which an individual cannot be aroused even by strong stimuli is


the brain waves produced by normal adults while resting with their eyes closed are ____ waves


in deep sleep,

the EEG pattern is characterized as "slow wave"

after arousal by a sensory stimulus, consciousness can be maintained by positive feedback, because of activity in

-cerebral cortex
-basal nuclei
-sensory pathways
-motor pathways

the regulation of awake-sleep cycles appears to involve an interplay between brain stem nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. the one that favors alertness is ____ and the other promoting deep sleep is ____

norepinephrine; serotonin

hallucinogenic drugs, such as LSD, function by

stimulating serotonin receptors

the inherited brain disorder Huntington's disease is caused by the destruction of basal nuclei that use different neurotransmitters. one neurotransmitter is ____ and the other is ___

acetylcholine; GABBA

what mental illness is often improved by drugs that block serotonin re-uptake


an age related decline in mental function characterized by difficulties with spatial orientation, memory, language, and personality is called

senile dementia

changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include

-reduction in brain size and weight
-decrease in the number of neurons
-decreased blood flow to the brain
-changes in synaptic organization in the brain

Alzheimer disease is characterized by all of the following, except that it

has a clear genetic basis

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